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Flashcards in Burgundy Deck (82):

What is the climate of Burgundy?

The overall climate is Continental.

  • Cold wet winter 
  • Warm dry summer

The climate spectrum is:

Chablis: cool Continental

Chalonnaise + Mâconnais: moderate Continental



Which river created the formal topography of Burgundy?

The Saône River


Name all grapes varieties found in Burgundy.

  • Pinot Noir
  • Gamay
  • Chardonnay
  • Aligoté
  • Pinot Blanc
  • Sauvignon Blanc


What are the 2 main grape varieties of Burgundy?

White: Chardonnay

Red: Pinot Noir


Which Burgundian grape is particularly susceptible to grey rot?

Pinot Noir


Other than spring frost, what 3 additional issues or diseases does Burgundy experience?

1. Late summer hail storms

2. Fungal diseases

  • grey rot
  • mildew

3. Flavescence dorée

  • Phytoplasma disease spread by the Leafhopper


Who first planted vines in Burgundy?

Romans first introduced vines to the region in the 1st century A.D.


Does Chardonnay or Pinot Noir account for about half the total planted vineyard area in Burgundy?


Pinot Noir covers only about 1/3 of the total planted vineyard area.


What is Napoleonic Code and how does it affect Burgundy?

  • Prior to the 18th century land in France was owned by the nobility and the Catholic church;

  • During the French Revolution in 1789, lands were taken away from the Church and divided among local farmers and tradesmen;

  • Napoleonic Code, written in the 1800s, required lands to be divided equally between all heirs;

  • Today, landowners continue to divvy up their properties equally amongst all their children; hence Burgundy's fragmented ownership.


Define what a négociant is in Burgundy.


A négociant in Burgundy is a producer who:

  • purchases grapes, juice, or finished wine from grape growers to supplement their own production;
  • from these purchases, they are capable of producing larger quantities at more affordable prices.

Most négociants are based in the city of Beaune. Some négociants own land and purchase additional grapes as a supplement; others do not and simply blend finished wine or make wine from purchased grapes.​


Name some famous négociants in Burgundy.

  • Bouchard Père et Fils
  • Louis Latour
  • Louis Jadot
  • Joseph Drouhin
  • Chanson
  • Boisset
  • Faiveley


What are the main differences between a Burgundian Pinot Noir and a new world Pinot Noir?

Burgundy: Wines tend to have higher acidity, moderate alcohol, and tarter, red fruit flavors.

New world: Wines are usually fuller in body, have higher alcohol, and a riper fruit expression.


What are the main regions (areas of production) in Burgundy? 


From north to south:

  • Yonne: Chablis/Auxerre
  • Côte d'Or: Côte de Nuits/Côte de Beaune
  • Côte Chalonnaise
  • Mâconnais
  • Beaujolais


What is the translation of Côte d'Or into English?

What styles of wine are produced in the Côte d'Or?

TranslationGolden Slope

The Côte d’Or focuses on still, dry white and dry red wines made from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, respectively.

Some rosés can be produced from Pinot Noir, too, e.g. Marsannay AOP, or under Bourgogne AOP.



What are the 2 subregions of the Côte d'Or?

  1. Côte de Nuits
  2. Côte de Beaune


Where on the slopes are most Grand Cru vineyards in Burgundy located?  Which direction do they face?

Where are village-level vineyards located?

Most Grand Crus have east-to-southeast exposure and are located mid-slope.  Exposure and soil variation are at their best mid-slope, where grapes are less prone to frost, see longer sunlight hours, and have better drainage.

Village wines are mostly on flat land or on top of the hill.


Where on the slopes are most 1er Cru vineyards in Burgundy located?

1er Cru vineyards are mostly located just above and just below mid-slope.

There are some 1er Crus that appear to be on the same plane as Grand Crus, e.g. Les Fuées in Chambolle and Les Suchots in Vosne-Romanée, but their aspect isn't as grand as their neighboring Grand Crus.


What are the 4 levels of classification in Burgundy?

The 4 levels of classification in Burgundy are:

  • Regional
  • Village
  • Premier Cru
  • Grand Cru


Explain the main difference between Village and 1er Cru within the Burgundian classification.


Village: quality wines, most often produced from a blend of plots within a single village.

1er Cru: higher quality wines produced from a specific climat/site/vineyard.

1er Crus are delineated because they have a particular soil, microclimate, slope inclination, and/or aspect.

1er Cru vineyards can be released as a single climat or they can be blended with other 1er Cru climats from the same village. In the case of the latter, the wine takes no vineyard name; just the village + 1er Cru.


Is the following wine from a single 1er Cru or is it a blend of 1er Cru vineyards?


It is a blend of 1er Cru vineyards.

This wine is sourced from two or more 1er Cru vineyards within the same village, in this case Gevrey-Chambertin.

However, when a vineyard name is on the label it must be solely produced from that precise vineyard, e.g. Gevrey-Chambertin 1er Cru Les Cazetiers.


In what village is this vineyard located?

What is the classification level: Village, 1er Cru, or Grand Cru?

What are the requirements to achieve this classification?

This wine comes from the village Gevrey-Chambertin from the Grand Cru Chambertin vineyard.

Requirements for a wine to be Grand Cru:

  • This wine must come from the single, stated plot on the label, in this case the Grand Cru Chambertin vineyard;
  • Grand Crus have to have lower yields and higher minimum must weights compared to Village or 1er Cru.


List the 3 AOPs of Chablis.


1. Petit Chablis AOP

2. Chablis AOP

  • Chablis 1er Cru is within Chablis AOP

3. Chablis Grand Cru AOP 

  • 1 AOP separated into 7 Grand Cru plots


What is the river that runs through the heart of Chablis?

The Serein River


In which département is Chablis AOP?

Chablis AOP is in the Yonne département.

Chablis is the northernmost appellation in Burgundy.


What is unique about the Chablis Grand Cru AOP?

The Chablis Grand Cru AOP covers all 7 Grand Cru plots under the same appellation of origin.

By contrast, every other Grand Cru vineyard in the Côte d'Or is designated as its own AOP.


Name all 7 Grand Cru vineyards of Chablis Grand Cru AOP.

From west to east:

  1. Bougros
  2. Les Preuses
  3. Vaudésir
  4. Grenouilles
  5. Valmur
  6. Les Clos
  7. Blanchot


Name some highly regarded domaines/producers in Chablis AOP.

  • François Raveneau
  • Vincent Dauvissat
  • Patrick Piuze
  • Billaud-Simon
  • Christian Moreau
  • Alice and Olivier de Moor
  • Thomas Pico/Domaine Pattes Loup


Name the largest producer of Chablis in terms of quantity.

La Chablisienne, the sole co-op in Chablis.

La Chablisienne produces more than 25% of the total production of Chablis.




What is the grape variety of Chablis AOP?


Chardonnay is the sole grape variety used to make still, dry white wines in Chablis.



What is the main soil type in Chablis?

Kimmeridgian limestone


What is the main weather hazard in Chablis?


The main weather hazard in Chablis is spring frost.

Cold temperatures (under 0°C/32ºF) can freeze the fresh buds and burn the green raw material.




How do Chablis producers combat spring frost?

  • Aspersion: water is sprayed over the vineyard to create a coating of ice around the fresh buds.  This layer of ice prevents bud damage due to the latent heat of the ice; (see photo)
  • Wind turbines: large fans that circulate air and prevent cold air from settling;
  • Smudge pots: small fires contained in clay or metal pots placed amongst the vines to prevent cold air from being trapped and freezing vine material.


What is the sole AOP in Burgundy to allow Sauvignon Blanc?

Saint-Bris AOP

Saint-Bris is in Yonne, near Chablis.


What is a monopole?  

Give an example of a monopole in Burgundy.


A monopole is a vineyard plot entirely owned by a single grower.

An example of a monopole in Burgundy is Clos de Ruchottes (in the village of Gevrey-Chambertin) owned by Domaine Armand Rousseau.


Within the Côte de Beaune, what is the only Grand Cru allowed to produce red wine?

Within the Côte de Nuits, what is the only Grand Cru allowed to produce white wine?

Côte de Beaune red

  • Corton Grand Cru AOP

Côte de Nuits white

  • Musigny Grand Cru AOP


What are the most famous village appellations of the Côte de Beaune?

What is the most famous style of wine produced in each? (white or red)

Villages best known for red wines

  • Volnay AOP 
  • Pommard AOP
  • Beaune AOP
  • Aloxe-Corton AOP

Villages best known for white wines 

  • Meursault AOP 
  • Puligny-Montrachet AOP 
  • ​Chassagne-Montrachet AOP 


How many months do white Burgundies typically spend in barrel aging?

6-9 months


Most Pinot Noirs from Burgundy are aged in what type of vessel?

What is the typical barrel aging period for red Burgundy?

228L French oak barrels, often a portion of them new.

Red Burgundy is typically aged for 16-18 months in barrel.


Where is Chassagne-Montrachet AOP, and what styles of wine does it produce?

Chassagne-Montrachet is in the Côte de Beaune.

Chassagne-Montrachet makes primarily still, dry white wines from Chardonnay and some red wines from Pinot Noir.


What are the 5 Grand Crus located in the villages of Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet? 

  1. (Le) Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  2. Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  3. Bienvenue-Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  4. Chevalier-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP
  5. Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet Grand Cru AOP


What is the primary style of wine produced in Puligny-Montrachet AOP?

Still, dry, white wines made from Chardonnay.


How do Chardonnays from Puligny-Montrachet differ from those produced in either Chassagne-Montrachet or Meursault?

  • The wines of Puligny-Montrachet are electric with bright, sharp acidity and a strong, racy minerality;
  • Meursault wines by contrast are about opulence and richness, with a round fruity character;
  • The wines of Chassagne-Montrachet are mostly balanced between those two styles. Some richness and power here, but with a great freshness, minerality, and balance.

All these differences are created by terroir: the influence of the climate and the texture of the soil, although a given producer's style will also influence the final wine.


Where is Meursault AOP, and what styles of wine does it produce?

Meursault is in the Côte de Beaune.

Meursault is best known for its still, dry, white wine made from Chardonnay, but some dry red wines are also produced here.


Meursault AOP does not have any Grand Cru vineyards.

True, Meursault has no Grand Crus.

The highest classified vineyards in Meursault are 1er Crus. 


Which wine is most likely to be fat and full in body with buttery characteristics?:

  • Chassagne-Montrachet
  • Puligny-Montrachet
  • Meursault 

Meursault AOP

There are some pundits who say that it's Meursault's soils, which are lower in humidity due to a lower water table, which help attribute that fatness.


Do Volnay and Pommard have any Grand Crus?

No, Pommard and Volnay do not have any Grand Cru vineyards.

The highest classified vineyards in Pommard and Volnay are 1er Crus. 


What is the style of wine found in Pommard AOP and Volnay AOP?

Dry, still, red wines made from Pinot Noir. 


What wines are produced in Aloxe-Corton AOP ?

Both red and white wines are produced in Aloxe-Corton, but it is better known for its reds than its whites. 

The soil in Aloxe is rich in iron which makes sturdy, structured Pinot Noirs.


What villages share Corton Grand Cru AOP?

  • Aloxe-Corton
  • Pernand-Vergelesses
  • Ladoix-Serrigny


Name the Grand Cru vineyards on the hill of Corton.

  • Corton AOP 
  • Corton-Charlemagne AOP
  • Charlemagne AOP 



Corton Grand Cru can produce which of the following:

  1. only white wine 
  2. only red wine 
  3. either white or red

Either white or red, although the majority of production is red wine.


In Burgundy, are Grand Cru vineyards ever blended with other Grand Crus?

Grand Crus in Burgundy are rarely ever blended together, although when it does happen the wine is declassified to the 1er Cru level, e.g. Domaine de la Romanée-Conti's Cuvée Duvault Blochet.

Only 1er Crus are allowed to be blended with other 1er Crus and maintain their 1er Cru classification.


What is the largest Grand Cru in Burgundy?



What is a Clos vineyard in Burgundy?

A clos is a vineyard enclosed by walls.

Some famous Clos in Burgundy include Clos de Vougeot Grand Cru in Vougeot, Clos Saint-Jacques 1er Cru in Gevrey-Chambertin, and Clos de Réas 1er Cru in Vosne-Romanée.


What is the Hospices de Beaune?

Historically, the Hospices de Beaune (also known as Hôtel-Dieu) was a charity hospital for the sick and poor founded in 1443 by Chancellor Nicolas Rolin.  

Having been bequeathed vineyards over the centuries, the Hospices de Beaune is one of the largest landholders (58ha) in the Côte de Beaune. It began auctioning its wines in 1859 to cover the costs of patient care.

Now a museum, the Hospices de Beaune holds a charity auction to cover building renovations and general upkeep.


Where is Côte de Nuits located? 
List the main villages of the Côte de Nuits.

Côte de Nuits is the northern part of the Côte d’Or, just south of Dijon. 

Villages north to south:

  • Marsannay
  • Fixin
  • Gevrey-Chambertin
  • Morey-Saint-Denis
  • Chambolle-Musigny
  • Vosne-Romanée
  • Vougeot
  • Nuits-Saint-Georges


Stylistically, how are Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Nuits and Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Beaune different from Côte de Nuits-Villages and Côte de Beaune-Villages?

Generally speaking, the wines of Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Nuits AOP and Bourgogne Hautes-Côtes de Beaune AOP tend to be lighter and less concentrated than their respective village appellations.

This is primarily because the vineyards designated as Hautes-Côtes are planted at higher elevation, where the temperature is cooler and the vines are more exposed to wind.



Style-wise, what is the main difference between Côte de Nuits-Villages and Côtes de Beaune-Villages?

  • Côte de Nuits-Villages can be red or white.
  • Côtes de Beaune-Villages can only be red.


What styles of wine are produced under the Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP?

What are the required grape varieties, and what are their minimum percentages?


Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP makes only light red or rosé wines

Blending Regulation:

  • Minimum 30% Pinot Noir
  • Minimum 15% Gamay


Where is Chambolle-Musigny AOP located, and what style of wine does it produce?

Chambolle-Musigny is in the Côte de Nuits.

Chambolle-Musigny produces only still, dry red wine.


What are the 2 Grand Crus of Chambolle-Musigny?

  1. Musigny
  2. Bonnes Mares


Where is Morey-Saint-Denis AOP located, and what style of wine does it produce?

Morey-Saint-Denis is in the Côte de Nuits.

Morey-Saint-Denis is famous for its still, dry red wine from Pinot Noir, but some dry white wines are also produced here. 


What are the Grand Crus of Morey-Saint-Denis?

  • Clos de la Roche
  • Clos Saint-Denis
  • Clos des Lambrays
  • Clos de Tart

There is a smidge of the Bonnes Mares Grand Cru in Chambolle that bleeds into Morey-Saint-Denis.


Where is Nuits-Saint-Georges AOP located, and what styles of wine does it produce?

Nuits-Saint-Georges is the southernmost village of the Côte-de-Nuits.

Nuits-Saint-Georges produces both white and red wines from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, respectively.


Does Nuits-Saint-Georges have any Grand Crus?

No, Nuits-Saint-Georges does not have any Grand Crus.

The highest classified vineyards in Nuits-Saint-Georges are 1er Cru.


Name the Grand Cru vineyards of Gevrey-Chambertin.

  • Chambertin
  • Charmes-Chambertin
  • Chambertin-Clos de Bèze
  • Chapelle-Chambertin
  • Griotte-Chambertin
  • Latricières-Chambertin
  • Mazis-Chambertin
  • Mazoyères-Chambertin
  • Ruchottes-Chambertin


Where is the Côte Châlonnaise?

Directly south of the Côte de Beaune.


Name the main villages of the Côte Chalonnaise.

From north to south:

  • Bouzeron
  • Rully
  • Mercurey
  • Givry
  • Montagny


What are the styles of wine made in Rully AOP?

Primarily dry, still whites and some reds are produced in Rully from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, respectively.

Interestingly, Rully is one of the centers of Crémant de Bourgogne production since 1822.


During the aging process of white Burgundy, what are some techniques used to create more flavor and complexity?


Sur lie aging and bâtonnage.

Sur lie aging, or the aging of wine 'on the lees,' is when yeast cells fall to the bottom of the fermentation vessel after fermentation and begin to break down. After a few months of aging, the wine displays more body and texture, with deeper flavors.

Bâtonnage is the stirring of the lees from the bottom of the oak cask. Bâtonnage introduces oxygen to the lees which helps prevent off-odors, or reduction. It also increases the lees contact to add extra richness and roundness to the wine.


What is the profile of a classic Aligoté from Burgundy?

Aligoté tends to be neutral, light and crisp with high acidity, and not overtly aromatic.


In Burgundy, what are the two AOPs produced from Aligoté?

  • Bourgogne Aligoté AOP
  • Bouzeron AOP


What are the AOPs in the Côte Châlonnaise best known for their production of red wines?

  • Mercurey AOP
  • Givry AOP


Which appellations in the Côte Châlonnaise make white wine only?

  • Montagny AOP - Chardonnay
  • Bouzeron AOP - Aligoté 


Wines from the Côte Châlonnaise and Mâconnais tend to be more or less age-worthy than wines from the Côte de Beaune?

Less age-worthy.

Wine from Côte Châlonnaise and Mâconnais are usually more approachable and meant to be enjoyed in their youth, but can offer good value.

Generally, Chardonnays from the Mâconnais and Côte Chalonnaise don't express the same precision and minerality as Chardonnays from the Côte de Beaune.


What is the regional appellation of the Côte Chalonnaise?

Bourgogne Côte Chalonnaise AOP


What is the most widely planted grape variety in the Mâconnais?



Why are Chardonnays from Mâconnais fuller and riper in style than those from the Côte de Beaune?

The Mâconnais tends to be warmer and have a longer growing season than the Côte de Beaune, so the grapes usually achieve a higher level of ripeness.


Why does the Mâconnais primarily make white wine?

Because of the soil type: it's high in limestone-rich soils, which are very suitable for Chardonnay.

Chardonnay represents about 90% of the total plantings in the Mâconnais.


What are the red grapes of the Mâconnais?

  • Pinot Noir - often labelled as Bourgogne rouge;
  • Gamay: different expression from Beaujolais as the soils in Mâcon are predominantly limestone, not granite.


What styles of wine are produced under the Mâcon AOP?

Still, dry white, rosé and red wines.

Whites are 100% Chardonnay.

Reds can be made from Pinot Noir and/or Gamay.


What are the 4 key appellations of the Mâconnais?

  • Saint-Véran AOP
  • Pouilly-Fuissé AOP
  • Mâcon AOP/Mâcon-Villages AOP
  • Viré-Clessé AOP