Chapter 35: Male Reproductive and Genitourinary Tumors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 35: Male Reproductive and Genitourinary Tumors Deck (106):
1

A total dose of 7200 cGy in fractions of 180 cGy is used to treat which male reproductive cancer?

Prostate

2

A total dose of 2500 cGy in fractions of 160 cGy is used to treat which male reproductive cancer?

Testicle

3

Which cancer can be treated using a water bath to provide dose homogeneity by compensating for the irregular surface with tissue-equivalent material?

Penis

4

Cancer of which urinary organ is most common?

Bladder

5

Cancer of which of the following male reproductive system components is most common?

Prostate

6

What is the most common form of kidney cancer?

Transitional cell carcinoma

7

What is the most common form of bladder cancer?

Transitional cell carcinoma

8

What is the standard dose used when irradiating the entire bladder?

4500 to 5000 cGy

9

What is the most common form of testicular cancer?

Germ cell tumors

10

What is the most common form of penile cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

11

What region might receive prophylactic radiation therapy for advanced right-sided testicular cancer?

Left SCV nodes

12

What is the primary treatment option for kidney cancer?

Surgery

13

What is the most common symptom of testicular cancer?

Painless mass

14

What is the 5-year survival of all stages of testicular cancer combined?

50%

15

What is the treatment of choice for testicular cancers?

Surgery

16

What is the 5-year survival of all stages of prostate cancer combined?

99%

17

Who has the most significant risk of developing prostate cancer?

70-year-old black male

18

Which of the following treatment techniques are most frequently used when irradiating the prostate?
I. Supine positioning
II. Prone positioning
III. Full bladder
IV. Empty bladder

a. I and III
I. Supine positioning
III. Full bladder

19

Which of the following cancers is most likely to occur in a 27-year-old male?

Testicle

20

Which of the following is least likely to be used in the management of a patient with prostate cancer?

Chemotherapy

21

Which lymph node chains will be treated if a man is diagnosed with right-sided testicular cancer that has not spread outside the testicle?
I. Right SCV nodes
II. Para-aortic nodes
III. Right inguinal nodes

II and III
II. Para-aortic nodes
III. Right inguinal nodes

22

Which of the following treatment techniques can be used to treat the prostate?
a. 4-field box
b. IMRT
c. Brachytherapy
d. All of the above

All of the above

23

Kidney carcinoma can be attributed to which of the following?
I. Cigarette use
II. Obesity
III. Betel nut chewing

I and II
I. Cigarette use
II. Obesity

24

To which surface of the prostate gland do the seminal vesicles attach?

Posterior superior

25

Gleason’s grading system is based on the tumor’s _______________.

morphology

26

How many new cases of kidney cancer are there each year?
Is it increasing or decreasing?

51,000

Increasing

27

How many deaths from kidney cancer each year?

12,900

28

What is a cause of kidney disease?

von Hippel-Lindau disease (Hereditary condition)

29

Symptoms of kidney cancer? (6)

Asymptomatic
Hematuria (Blood in urine)
Pain
Mass
Fatigue
Weight loss

30

What is the treatment of choice for kidney cancer?

Surgery

31

Radiation dose range for kidney cancer?

4500-5000 cGy

32

How many new cases of bladder cancer per year?

6700

33

How many deaths from bladder cancer each year?

1,375

34

Symptoms of bladder cancer? (2)

Hematuria
Change in bladder habits

35

percentage of metastasis in kidney cancer?

25-35%

36

Dose for bladder cancer?

4500-5000 cGy

37

How many new cases of ureter cancer each year?

2500

38

Deaths from ureter cancer each year?

690

39

Risk factors for ureter cancer? (2)

Smoking
Occupational exposures

40

Symptoms of ureter cancer? (5)

Hematuria
Pain
Mass
Obstruction
Incontinence

41

Type of ureter cancer?

Transitional cell carcinoma

42

New cases of penile cancer each year?

1500

43

Deaths from penile cancer each year?

280

44

Risk factors for penile cancer? (6)

Hygiene, phimosis, and smegma
HPV
Smoking
Psoriasis treatment
AIDS
Circumcision

45

Symptoms for penile cancer? (4)

Skin changes
-Color
-Thickness
Discharge
Ulcer
Swelling

46

Does metastasis for penile cancer occur early or late?

Late

47

Bladder cancer is more common in men than in women.

True

Bladder cancer occurs about four times more often in men than in women

48

Early prostate cancer is asymptomatic.

True

Carcinoma of the prostate can be asymptomatic until reaching a significant size.

49

Hormone therapy can be used as a curative treatment for prostate cancer.

False

Hormone therapy is used in addition to other therapies.

50

Injury to the testicles is a known risk factor for developing a seminoma.

False

51

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting American men.

True

Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common malignancy in males in the United States.

52

PSA is only useful in diagnosing prostate cancer.

False

PSA is also helpful post treatment.

53

Radiation therapy treatments for seminoma include the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes.

False

Patients with stage I testicular seminoma should receive megavoltage irradiation to the paraaortic or para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvic lymph nodes. The primary tumor has been removed and therefore is not in the treatment field.

54

Radiation therapy is typically used as a primary treatment option for cancers of the bladder.

False

Treatment of bladder cancer includes some form of surgical resection.

55

Scrotal irradiation is a commonly accepted practice for testicular cancer.

False

The 1989 Consensus Conference in Leeds, England, recommended that inguinal or scrotal irradiation be omitted even if scrotal interference has occurred.

56

The survival data for external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are better than surgery for prostate cancer when like groups are compared.

False

Results with both external beam radiation and radiaoisotopic implant are much the same as for surgery if like groups are compared.

57

Topical chemotherapy is often used when treating low staged penile cancers.

True

Bowen disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat can be treated with topical 5-FU (5% cream), a local excision, or superficial x-rays (4500 to 5000 cGy in 4 to 5 weeks).

58

Variations in rectal fullness have very little effect on the daily position of the prostate.

False

Exact prostate positions varies daily due to a number of factors including rectal fullness.

59

What is the number one cancer incidence for males in the US?

prostate cancer

60

Prostate cancer is ___ in mortality in the US

second in mortality

lung first

61

Who presents later stage and have worse prognosis than caucasians?

african americans

62

Overall prostate cancer is a ____ growing malignancy

slow

63

What is the average age of onset for prostate?

60 years

64

What are side effects of a box field technique?

cystitis, proctitis, diarrhea, dysuria

65

What does a full bladder do?

decreases bladder dose and displaces small bowel in lateral fields

66

What male cancer has a low occurrence but is the most common male cancer for 15 to 35 year old males?

Testicular

67

Is testicular cancer more common in Caucasian or african americans?

Caucasian

68

Is Penile cancer common in the US?

no, rare in the US but higher incidence in Asia, Africa, South America

69

What is the age range for penile cancer?

range from 22 to 90
generally a disease of older men
in the US 29% were younger than 30 years old

70

What is etiology for penile cancer?

no circumcision at birth
Phimosis
poor hygiene, smegma
HPV
Ultraviolet radiation
smoking

71

What is the most common pathology of penile cancer?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

72

The most common cancer of germinal origin of the testis is?

seminoma

73

Testicular cancers are most frequently diagnosed in men aged

15 to 35

74

Gleason developed a grading system based on the degree of differentiation seen in tissue samples. His system uses ____ different histologic patterns

5

75

Of the following tumors, which would require the lowest dose to control disease?

testis

76

When irradiating seminoma stages I, IA IB the following nodes should be incldued:
a. paraaortic
b. Ipsilateral iliac
c. mediastinal
d. scalene

a paraaortic and b ipsilateral iliac

77

The most common histologic type found in prostate cancer is

adenocarcinoma

78

Brachytherapy in the management of prostate cancer would be

LDR interstitial

79

The patient complaining of diarrhea should be advised to

avoid high fiber foods

80

The inguinal nodes should be included in RT fields for

penile

81

What is in the urinary system?

kidney and bladder

82

What age is median age of onset of kidney (renal) cancer?

55 to 60 years old

83

Men are affected twice as much w kidney cancer as women?

True

84

Where are bladder cancers more common?

high incidence in industrial cities

85

Men are 2.5 times more likely than women to get bladder cancer?

True

86

What is the median age of bladder cancer?

68

87

What is usually the cause of death in bladder cancer patients?

liver failure and uremia

88

What is cystectomy?

Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder.

89

Which of the following examinations are best used in the detection of bladder cancer?

TURB
Urine cytology
cytoscopy

90

most bladder cancers arise in the

posterior wall
lateral wall
trigone

91

What is TURB

transurethral bladder removal

92

The ureters attach the ____ surface of the bladder

posterolateral

93

The right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to the presence of the

liver

94

The most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer is

hematuria

95

The ureters enter the kidney at the

renal pelvis

96

Urine passes from the bladder to the outside of the body via

urethra

97

The most common pathology of malignant tumors of the prostate is

adenocarcinoma

98

Most common type of kidney tumor is:

Transitional cell Carcinoma

99

Cancer with highest incidence rate for males is:

Prostate Cancer

100

Which of the following are common immobilization-repositioning devices used in the treatment of prostate cancer?
I. Polyurethane foam molds
II. Vacuum devices (Vac Locks)
III. Belly Board

I, II, and III

101

For patients with bladder cancer, the bladder should be ________ during whole-bladder radiation.

empty

102

A side effect associated with the treatment of prostate cancer , in which the adult male is unable to obtain an erection, is:

impotence

103

The prostate gland is located _______ to the rectum.

anterior

104

The tumor of the male reproductive and genitourinary system that requires the lowest dose to control the disease is:

seminoma

105

The tumor of the male reproductive and genitourinary system for which a brachytherapy implant is most likely used to control the disease is:

prostate

106

the most common testicular tumor pathology is:

seminoma