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Flashcards in Chapter Two Deck (72):
1

What four things occurs in prophase?

1. Chromosomes become chromatin
2. Nuclear membrane distinguishes
3. Centrioles double and move
4. Development of spindle

2

What happens in metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the equator of the cell.

3

What happens in anaphase?

Tear centromeres apart, to Opposite poles.

4

What happens in telophase?

It is the reverse of prophase
1spindle breaks down
2 nuclomembrane reforms
3. Chromosomes go back to chromatin

5

What is the characteristics of sexual reproduction?

Sex is for variations.
A COMBO of mom and dad
Sperm and egg

6

What is the phases in mitosis?

Interphase( g1 s g2)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

7

Where is the only place meiosis occurs?

Gametes

8

What is the first place variation comes from crossing over?

Prophase one

9

What is the second place variation comes from crossing over?

Metaphase one

10

What is the purpose for meiosis one?

Produce haploid cells

11

What happens in prophase one.

Each pair of chromosomes pair up and lay next to each other about to cross over but only piece ps of each end get swapped back and forth.

12

What happens in metaphase one?

Start to line up in the middle still shuffling chromosomes.
Shuffles chromosomes and DNA.

13

What is the third place of variations?

You choose the partners.

14

What happens in meiosis one

It splits pairs
Two chromosomes but doubles DNA

15

What happens in meiosis two?

Line up tear apart and move apart with haploid
But with normal DNA

16

What was the first theory of genetics?

Pre formed

17

What did the first theory of genetics mean?

Believed humans were pre formed
Little humans in sperm.

18

What was the second theory of genetics?

Blending.

19

What does the second theory of genetics mean?

Cross two things becomes characteristics in between.
Tall + short = medium
But if this would keep happening there would be no variations.

20

What is the third theory of genetics?

Gregory medal's

21

What was Mendels first law of genetics?

Segregation.

22

What does segregation mean?

All organisms have two factors for each trait that separate during meiosis and come back together as fertilization.

23

What is genotypic ratio?

The letters,
tt TT Tt
1:2:1
25% 50% 25%

24

What is phenotypic ratio?

Physical
Tall or short
3:1
75% 25%

25

What was medels second law?

Independent Assortment

26

What is independent assortment?

Alleles for one trait don't effect the sorting of allels for another trait during meiosis.

27

What is an Incomplete cross?

NOT BLENDING
25% red
25% white
50% pink

28

What is an example of Codominance cross?

Blood type.

29

What chromosomes are sex chromosomes?

The last two chromosomes

30

What letters determine males?

XY

31

What letters determine Female.

XX

32

What's the difference between meiosis one and meiosis two?

Meiosis one separates pairs
Meiosis two separates arms

33

What are chromosomes?

DNA together

34

What are chromatin?

DNA relaxed

35

What are chromatid?

Different size of chromosomes
Half of a double

36

What is cry of the cat?

Short number five chromosome

37

What happens in G1?

Double organelles

38

What happens in G2 phase?

Make protein material to divide.

39

What happens in nondisjunction?

Pair of chromosomes don't separate in meiosis one.

40

What are bar bodies?

The second X falls off.

41

Cross BBSS X BbSs

Foil

42

What is the genotype for Red?

RR

43

What is the genotypic for pink?

Rr

44

What is the genotype for white?

rr

45

What does homozygous mean?

two big letters
BB

46

What does heterozygous mean?

One big letter one little letter
Bb

47

What is blood type A Dominant over?

I

48

What is blood type B Dominant over?

I

49

What Is AB.

Codomance

50

What are other forms of blood type A

AA Ai

51

What are other forms of blood type B?

BB Bi

52

What are other forms of AB

There are none it's just AB

53

What are other forms of O

ii

54

What is an example of a sex linked trait?

Color blindness

55

Is males or females more susceptible to color blindness?

Males

56

Can people be color blind and carrier?

No has to be one or the other

57

What is mutation?

Any change in DNA

58

What are the levels of mutation?

Insertion
Deletion
Substitution

59

What is substitution?

CAT CAT CAT
CGT CAT CAT

tiny change causes sickle cell disease.

60

What is deletion?

CAT ATC ATC
causes frame shift and changes every

61

What are some symptoms of cry of the cat?

Bite fingers off
Strip down
Very violent

62

What happens when whole chromosomes are missing?

Down syndrome

63

What happens when there is a third extra 21 chromosomes?

Downs

64

What is non disjunction?

When both XX's travel together making the genotype XXXX

65

What is the genotype in women for klinefelters?

XXY femalish male

66

What is the genotype in women for turners

XO

67

What happens when the chromosomes in women are XO

It's a spontaneous abortions
Dead

68

What is the genotype for the sperm when having klinefelters?

XXY

69

What is the genotype for the sperm when having turners?

XO

70

What is the genotype for the sperm when having super woman?

XXX

71

What is the genotype for the sperm when having Jacobs syndrome?

XYY

72

What are examples of sets of chromosomes?

It's ok in plants not animals
Example seedless watermelon
But doesn't effect growth