Contemporary Classification (C. Diarthrosis....Common Features) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Contemporary Classification (C. Diarthrosis....Common Features) Deck (23):
1

What are the characteristics of the type I articular receptors?

Located in the superficial layer of the fibrous capsule, resemble Ruffini endings, most numerous in cervical zygapophyses and they monitor the joint "at rest"

2

What are the characteristics of type II articular receptors?

Located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble Pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine, and monitor the joint during normal range of motion

3

What are the characteristics of type III articular receptors?

Present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, intrinsic ligaments, resemble Golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme joint motion

4

What is the function of type IV articular receptors?

Nociceptive, they monitor pain

5

Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?

Accessory ligamnets in general, dense in th eposterior longituddinal ligament of the spine

6

What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?

(1) synovial villi
(2) articular fat pads or Haversian glands
(3) synovial menisci and intra-articular discs

7

What is the generic function of modifications of articular synovial membrane?

Aid in spreading synovial fluid

8

What is the apparent function of synovial villi?

Increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion -- absorption phenomena

9

Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?

Lumbar zygapophyses

10

What is the unique name of the inner or lumenal layer of the synovial membrane?

Synovial lamina intima

11

What are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?

Are phagocytic

12

What is the specific function of type B synovial cells?

Secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid

13

What are examples of glycosaminoglycans important in articular cartilage?

Hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, and keratin sulfate

14

What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?

Form a network for water retention

15

What is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?

Cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property

16

What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?

Cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time dependent property

17

Which theory of joint lubrication implies a loss of fluid from the cartilage into the joint space during compression results in increased viscosity of the synovial fluid?

Weeping theory

18

Which theory of joint lubrication implies water loss from the synovial fluid increases viscosity of the remaining synovial fluid?

Boosted theory

19

Which theory of joint lubrication implies an adsorption of lubricant onto cartilage surfaces is responsible for the low-friction observed during movement?

Boundary theory

20

What are the properties of synovial fluid?

It is yellow-white, viscous, slightly alkaline, and tastes salty

21

Which substance in synovial fluid was first though to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

Hyaluronate

22

What substance of synovial fluid has been proposed to be responsible for its viscosity and lubricating behavior?

Lubricin

23

What is the function of synovial fluid?

Provides a nutritive source for articular cartilage and supply the lubricant for the cartilage surface

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