Curvatures of the Column (Normal Curvatures, Abnormal Curvatures) Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Curvatures of the Column (Normal Curvatures, Abnormal Curvatures) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Curvatures of the Column (Normal Curvatures, Abnormal Curvatures) Deck (44):
1

Why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?

It is the first curve to appear embryologically

2

What are the adult remnants of the primary curve along the vertebral column?

The thoracic or dorsal curve and the pelvic or sacrococcygeal curve

3

What are the names given to curves which form during development to reverse the direction of the regions along the vertebral column?

Anterior curve, secondary curve, compensatory curve

4

What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?

Cervical curve and lumbar curve

5

What is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?

The third fetal month

6

What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

During the last trimester in utero

7

What is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?

Within the first year after birth

8

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

1. Centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in teh brain
2. Musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. The head is held upright
4. The intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posetrior

9

At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?

Usually between the third and fourth month after birth

10

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

The righting reflex

11

What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

Between occiput and C1

12

What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

Between 12 and 18 months after birth

13

What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?

Crawling and walking

14

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

1. Crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. Muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. Intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. Walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

15

What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?

Lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12

16

What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?

Faster development of the muscles on the side of handedness

17

What is the formation of the lateral curve often correlated with?

Faster development of the muscles on the side of handedness

18

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

They appear after 6 years old

19

What names are given to conditions associated with abnormal curves of the vertebral column?

Lordosis, kyphosis, socliosis

20

What is the definition of lordosis?

A forward bending condition

21

What is the definition of kypyhosis?

A humpback or hunchback condition

22

What is the definition of scoliosis?

A warped or crooked condition

23

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class?

Military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

24

What is military neck?

A decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck

25

What is humpback or hunchback?

An increased posterior curve in the thoracic region

26

What is swayback?

An increased anterior curve in the lumbar region

27

What does the used o the term lordotic try to imply?

A normal cervical and normal lumbar anterior curve

28

What dose the used of the term kyphotic try to imply?

A normal thoracic or dorsal and normal pelvic or sacrococcygeal posterior curve

29

What prefixes are used to convey abnormality in curve patterns?

Hyper and hypo

30

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

A kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

31

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

A kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

32

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

A lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

33

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?

Magnitude, location, direction, etiology, structural scoliosis, and non-structural scoliosis

34

What is often used to measure the magnitude of scoliosis?

The Cobb Methosd

35

What does location of scoliosis infer?

The location on the vertebral segment forming the apex of the curve deviation

36

What does direction of scoliosis refer to?

The side the convexity of the curve will bend toward

37

What does etiology of scoliosis mean?

The cause of the scoliosis?

38

Based on age of onset, what are the types of idiopathic scoliosis?

Infantile, juvenile, and adolescent

39

What is the age range for infantile idiopathic scoliosis?

From birth to 3 years old

40

What is the age range for juvenile idiopathic scoliosis?

From 3 years old to 10 years old

41

What is the age range for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?

Over 10 years odl

42

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias, and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

Left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

43

Identify the curve direction , location, gender bias, and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

44

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening?

The greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

Decks in Spinal Anatomy Class (33):