Hematologic / oncologic disorders - aa Flashcards Preview

Clin Med Pediatrics - Ashley & Lauren > Hematologic / oncologic disorders - aa > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hematologic / oncologic disorders - aa Deck (15)
1

~progressive pancytopenia & macrocytosis
~purpura, petechiae, bleeding
~cafe au lait spots, hypopigmentation
~short stature & delicate features
~skeletal malformations e.g. missing thumb & radius
~may be cured by successful bone marrow transplant

aplastic anemia

2

~hypochromic microcytic anemia
~symptoms range from asymptomatic to mild to moderate to fetal demise
~transfusions may be required

thalassemia

3

hydrops fetalis

the worst kind of alpha thalassemia - all four alpha-globin genes are deleted; no normal hemoglobin is produced, so fetus is stillborn

4

~recurrent episodes of musculoskeletal and/or abdominal pain
~pallor, jaundice, predisposition to gallstones during childhood
~poorly healing ulcers over lower tibia
~dactylitis in up to 50% of kids before age 3
~diagnosis confirmed with hemoglobin electrophoresis
~treatment: daily prophylactic penicillin from 2 months through 5 years

sickle cell anemia

5

~pallor, fatigue
~nutritional deficiency
~microcytic hypochromic anemia

iron deficiency anemia

6

The most common red cell enzyme defect that causes hemolytic anemia.

G6PD deficiency

7

~significant hyperbilirubinemia in infants
~older kids asymptomatic and normal-appearing between episodes of hemolysis
~bite cells, spherocytes, Heinz bodies

G6PD deficiency

8

~Otherwise healthy child
~Markedly decreased platelet count
~Petechiae, ecchymoses
~Most common bleeding disorder of childhood
~2-5 yo, often following viral infection
~avoid NSAIDs
~usually recover spontaneously

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

9

~bruising, hemarthrosis
~reduced factor VIII activity
~prolonged aPTT
~treatment: exogenous factor VIII; desmopressin

hemophilia

10

The most common childhood brain tumor.

astrocytoma

11

Classic brain tumor triad:

morning headache
vomiting
papilledema

12

Infratentorial brain tumors in what age group?
Supratentorial brain tumors in what age group?

infratentorial: less than 6
supratentorial: greater than 8

13

Hx of a sports injury that doesn't get better; bone pain; tall kids; sunburst pattern on xr

osteosarcoma

14

Involves diaphyses of long bones; pain at tumor site; moth-eaten lytic lesion on xr

Ewing sarcoma

15

Abdominal mass, smooth firm, well-demarcated. Overall cure rate of 90%

Wilms tumor