Miscellaneous #1 - aa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Miscellaneous #1 - aa Deck (25)
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Which swelling/edema crosses suture lines and which one doesn't?
~caput succedaneum

~cephalohematoma: does NOT cross suture lines
~caput succedaneum: crosses suture lines


At what age?
~lift head
~roll over
~sit without support

lift head: 2 months
roll over: 4 months
sit without support: 6 months
crawl: 9 months
walk: 12 months
run: 18 months


What is the timing of closure of fontanels?

posterior: closed by 2 months
anterior: closed by 2 years


By what age does an infant re-achieve their birth weight?
Double birth weight?
Triple birth weight?

re-achieve birth weight: 2 weeks
double birth weight: 5 months
triple birth weight: 12 months


What age does stranger anxiety develop?

6-10 months


What is the normal range for infant

~HR: 100-160
~RR: 40-60


If a newborn failed to receive the Beutler test before discharge, what might they have and not know it?



Treatments for anxiety disorders?

1. Cognitive and behavioral therapy
2. SSRIs
3. Benzodiazepines


What's the problem with giving antidepressants to depressed children?

Black box warning for antidepressants for children - increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide


< 85% of normal body weight or BMI < 17.5

anorexia nervosa


What has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders? What is the suicide rate compared to average population?

anorexia nervosa; 50x average rate


What are the 3 core deficits of autism?

1. impairment in communication
2. impairment in reciprocal social interactions
3. stereotypical, restrictive, and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities


You witness a 7 month old baby have a seizure that lasted 2 minutes. There was acute loss of consciousness, with tonic posturing, and the infant's temperature was 103F.
What kind of seizure is this?
What might you suspect as the cause?
Will you order an MRI?

~Febrile seizure (90+% are generalized seizures)
~acute respiratory illness; roseola infantum is a rare but classic cause
~immunizations may also be a cause
~a single simple febrile/generalized seizure with normal exam usually doesn't require imaging


The diagnosis of ____ requires the presence of a characteristic pattern of facial abnormalities:
~short palpebral fissures
~thin upper lip
~indistinct or smooth philtrum

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS refers to the full syndrome associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Also has growth deficiency and evidence of CNS damage and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This diagnosis can be made with or without confirmed maternal prenatal use of alcohol.


~Webbed neck, triangular facies, short stature, wide-set nipples, amenorrhea, and absence of secondary sex characteristics.
~Associated with coarctation of the aorta and genitourinary malformations.
~IQ is usually normal but learning disabilities are common.

Turner Syndrome (Monosomy X)


~Upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, midface hypoplasia, small pinnae
~Generalized hypotonia, cognitive disabilities (mild to moderate)
~Congenital heart diseases (AV defects) and GI anomalies
~Trisomy 21

Down syndrome


~Diagnosis rarely made before puberty due to normal pre-pubertal phenotype.
~After puberty: microorchidism, lack of libido, minimal facial hair, tall/eunuchoid build
~Azoospermia, sterility, gynecomastia, normal to borderline IQ

Klinefelter syndrome


Benign tumors consisting of Schwann cells, nerve fibers, and fibroblasts



The most common cause of cognitive disabilities in males.

Fragile X Syndrome
1:1000 males


~intellectual disabilities
~oblong facies with large ears
~large testicles after puberty
~hyperextensible joints, mitral valve prolapse
~infantile autism or autistic-like behavior

Male with fragile X syndrome


Clinical expression of fragile X differs in male and female offspring depending on which parent is transmitting the gene.



What are the most severe and mildest forms of spina bifida?

most severe: meningomyelocele
mildest (may be asymptomatic): spina bifida occulta


• Boys with ____ show proximal muscle weakness and pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles by age 5-6
• Become non-ambulatory by age 13 with markedly elevated serum creatine kinase levels
• Affected individuals frequently die in their 20s of respiratory and cardiovascular failure

Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Thriving infant 3-12 months with recurrent paroxysms of abdominal pain, screaming and drawing up the knees, followed by vomiting and diarrhea (90%), and bloody mucus-y BMs in next 12 hours (50%), lethargic child, may be febrile, tender distended abdomen, sausage shaped mass in mid-upper abdomen.



bile-stained vomiting