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Flashcards in I. Cells & Matrix Deck (69):
1

What are the four basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, neural & connective tissues

2

What is osteology?

the study of bone

3

What are the three primary cell types of bone cell?

osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts

4

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

osteoblast - form bone
osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone
osteoclast - remodel bone

5

What are the bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers, and various minerals

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, and hyaluronic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

collagen type I

9

What is the primary constituents of the bone minerals?

calcium, phosphate, citrate, and carbonate ions

10

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium, and radium

12

What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors such as anxiety, tension, and pressure; bone is formed or absorbed in response to these same stressors

13

What three responses to "living" bone were stressed in class?

it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors such as anxiety, tension, or pressure and to age

14

Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?

mesenchyme and/or cartilage

15

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

16

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

from the second to third month in utero

17

What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

the skull

18

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

19

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

from the second to fifth month in utero

20

Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossificaiton?

the mandible, sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones

21

Which bones of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

the clavicle

22

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

23

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone

24

What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?

subchondral bone

25

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

the periosteum

26

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular covering lining of bone?

the endosteum

27

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation), and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

28

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

sexual dimorphism or gender variation

29

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?

ontogenetic variation

30

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?

geographic variation or population based variation

31

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the uniqueness between individuals is identified as which type of variation?

idiosyncratic variation

32

What are six more commonly used classifications of normal bone?

long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones, and sesamoid bones

33

Which classifications of bone are characteristic of the appendicular skeleton?

long bones, short bones, and sesamoid bones

34

What is the characteristic feature of a long bone?

it is longer than it is across (length greater than breadth)

35

What are the names given to the parts of a long bone?

the diaphysis (shaft) and typically two epiphyses (extremities)

36

What is the primary characteristic of short bones?

they are essentially cuboidal

37

What are examples of short bones?

most of the bones of the carpus and tarsus

38

What is the characteristic of a sesamoid bone?

the bone develops within a tendon

39

What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?

patella and pisiform

40

Which classifications of bone are characteristic of the axial skeleton?

flat bones, irregular bones, and paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones

41

What are flat bone?

a thin layer of spongy bone is sandwiched between two layers of compact bone

42

What are examples of flat bones?

the parietal bone and sternum

43

What is the name given to the spongy bone of the skull?

diploe

44

What is characteristic of irregular bone?

numerous projections or irregular outlines

45

What are examples of irregular bone?

the vertebrae and innominate bones

46

What is characteristic pneumatic bone?

air spaces within the bone

47

What are examples of pneumatic bone?

frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, sphenoid, and temporal

48

What bones contain paranasal sinuses?

frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and sphenoid

49

What are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed in Spinal Anatomy?

accessory and heterotopic bone

50

What is the name given to bone formed from existing bone?

accessory bone

51

What are examples of accessory bone?

para-articular processes and bony spurs on vertebrae

52

What is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?

heterotopic bone

53

What are examples of hetertopic bone?

calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart, and ligaments

54

What are the four basic feature categories?

elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways, and facets

55

When do the surface features of bone become prominent?

during and after puberty

56

What are the types of osseous elevations?

linear, rounded, and sharp

57

What are the types of osseous linear elevation?

the line, ridge, and crest

58

What are the types of rounded osseous elevations?

tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber, or tuberosity, and malleolus

59

What are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?

spine and process

60

What are the categories of osseous depressions?

linear and rounded depressions

61

What are the categories of osseous linear depressions?

notch or incisure, groove, and sulcus

62

What are categories of rounded osseous depressions?

the fovea and fossa

63

What are the names given to openings on the surface of bone?

ostium or orifice and hiatus

64

What is the definition of an osseous ostium?

a round or oval opening on the surface of bone

65

What is the definition of an osseous hiatus?

an irregular opening on the surface of bone

66

What are the names given to the osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?

foramen or canal

67

What is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?

meatus

68

What are the categories of osseous facets?

flat facets and rounded facets

69

What are the categories of rounded osseous facets?

articular heads and articular condyles