Flashcards in I. Cells & Matrix Deck (69):
What are the four basic tissues of the human body?
epithelial, muscle, neural & connective tissues
What is osteology?
the study of bone
What are the three primary cell types of bone cell?
osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
What is the function of each type of bone cell?
osteoblast - form bone
osteocyte - maintain or nurture bone
osteoclast - remodel bone
What are the bone cells embedded in?
an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers, and various minerals
What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?
What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?
chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, and hyaluronic acid
What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?
collagen type I
What is the primary constituents of the bone minerals?
calcium, phosphate, citrate, and carbonate ions
What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?
Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?
sodium, magnesium, fluoride, lead, strontium, and radium
What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?
living tissue will respond to stressors such as anxiety, tension, and pressure; bone is formed or absorbed in response to these same stressors
What three responses to "living" bone were stressed in class?
it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors such as anxiety, tension, or pressure and to age
Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?
mesenchyme and/or cartilage
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?
What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?
from the second to third month in utero
What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?
What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?
from the second to fifth month in utero
Which skull bones are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossificaiton?
the mandible, sphenoid, temporal, and occipital bones
Which bones of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?
What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?
primary centers of ossification appear before birth
secondary centers of ossification appear after birth
Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?
cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone
What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?
What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?
What is the name given to the fibro-cellular covering lining of bone?
What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?
sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation), and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?
sexual dimorphism or gender variation
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on age or developmental variation is identified as which type of variation?
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity or locational variation is identified as which type of variation?
geographic variation or population based variation
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on the uniqueness between individuals is identified as which type of variation?
What are six more commonly used classifications of normal bone?
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones, and sesamoid bones
Which classifications of bone are characteristic of the appendicular skeleton?
long bones, short bones, and sesamoid bones
What is the characteristic feature of a long bone?
it is longer than it is across (length greater than breadth)
What are the names given to the parts of a long bone?
the diaphysis (shaft) and typically two epiphyses (extremities)
What is the primary characteristic of short bones?
they are essentially cuboidal
What are examples of short bones?
most of the bones of the carpus and tarsus
What is the characteristic of a sesamoid bone?
the bone develops within a tendon
What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?
patella and pisiform
Which classifications of bone are characteristic of the axial skeleton?
flat bones, irregular bones, and paranasal sinus or pneumatic bones
What are flat bone?
a thin layer of spongy bone is sandwiched between two layers of compact bone
What are examples of flat bones?
the parietal bone and sternum
What is the name given to the spongy bone of the skull?
What is characteristic of irregular bone?
numerous projections or irregular outlines
What are examples of irregular bone?
the vertebrae and innominate bones
What is characteristic pneumatic bone?
air spaces within the bone
What are examples of pneumatic bone?
frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, sphenoid, and temporal
What bones contain paranasal sinuses?
frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and sphenoid
What are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed in Spinal Anatomy?
accessory and heterotopic bone
What is the name given to bone formed from existing bone?
What are examples of accessory bone?
para-articular processes and bony spurs on vertebrae
What is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?
What are examples of hetertopic bone?
calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart, and ligaments
What are the four basic feature categories?
elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways, and facets
When do the surface features of bone become prominent?
during and after puberty
What are the types of osseous elevations?
linear, rounded, and sharp
What are the types of osseous linear elevation?
the line, ridge, and crest
What are the types of rounded osseous elevations?
tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber, or tuberosity, and malleolus
What are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?
spine and process
What are the categories of osseous depressions?
linear and rounded depressions
What are the categories of osseous linear depressions?
notch or incisure, groove, and sulcus
What are categories of rounded osseous depressions?
the fovea and fossa
What are the names given to openings on the surface of bone?
ostium or orifice and hiatus
What is the definition of an osseous ostium?
a round or oval opening on the surface of bone
What is the definition of an osseous hiatus?
an irregular opening on the surface of bone
What are the names given to the osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?
foramen or canal
What is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?
What are the categories of osseous facets?
flat facets and rounded facets