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Flashcards in V. An Introduction to Basic Arthrology Deck (41):
1

What term is used to identify the study of joints?

arthrology

2

What term is used to identify the study of ligaments?

syndesmology

3

What are the three histological classifications of joints?

fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial fluid

4

What were the three Latin classifications of joints based on movement potential?

synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis

5

Which classification of synarthrosis joints implies a bond condition?

syndesmosis

6

What is the classification of a joint held together with cartilage?

synchondrosis

7

What is the classification of a joint formed by a growth condition?

symphysis

8

What are the two subclassifications of amphiarthrosis joints based on Latin groupings?

synchondrosis, symphysis

9

What is the classification of a plane or gliding synovial joint?

arthrodia

10

What is the classification of a hinge type synovial joint?

ginglymus

11

What is the classification of a pivot type synovial joint?

trochoid

12

What is the classification of a knuckle type synovial joint?

condylar or bicondylar

13

What is the classification of an oval-like synovial joint?

ellipsoidal

14

What is the classification of a saddle type synovial joint?

sellar

15

What is the classification of a ball and socket synovial joint?

cotyloid, spheroidal, or enarthrosis

16

What term is now used to identify the synarthrosis joint type?

fibrous joints

17

What is the name given to the condition in which bones are fused together by bone?

synostosis

18

What fibrous connective tissue classically fills the joint space of a syndesmosis?

a ligament

19

What is the synonym for amphiarthrosis joints?

cartilage joint

20

Which classification of cartilage joint is the first to appear developmentally?

(amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

21

Which cartilage joint forms between ossification centers within a cartilage template?

(amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

22

Which classification of cartilage joint is primary, temporary, composed of hyaline cartilage and forms between ossification centers within a cartilage template?

(amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis

23

What are the characteristics of the (amphiarthrosis) synchondrosis?

they are primary cartilage joints, temporary in longevity, composed of hyaline cartilage, and form between ossification centers within a cartilage template

24

Which cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary?

(amphiarthrosis) symphysis

25

Which cartilage joint occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification?

(amphiarthrosis) symphysis

26

Which classification of cartilage joint is secondary, permanent, composed of fibrous cartilage (fibrocartilage) and occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification?

(amphiarthrosis) symphysis

27

What are the four consistent features of synovial (diarthrosis) joints?

articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage, and synovial fluid

28

What are classifications of synovial joints (diarthroses) based on?

1) the number of articulating surfaces
2) the degree/s of freedom and/or types of movement
3) the morphological appearance of the bony surfaces or the shape of the joint cavity

29

What movements are accommodated by arthrodial synovial joints?

translational movement, a plane or gliding movement

30

What examples of synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodial) joints occur along the vertebral column?

most zygapophyses of the vertebral column

31

Diarthrosis trochoid joints are commonly called ______ joints based on action.

synovial pivot

32

What is an example of synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joints along the vertebral column?

median atlanto-axial joint

33

What is the shared morphological characteristic of diarthorsis trochoid joints?

an osseous pivot point and an osteo-ligamentous ring

34

What are the parts of the median atlanto-axial joint?

in the median atlanto-axial, the pivot point is the dens or odontoid process of C2 and it is stationary while the osteo-ligamentous ring formed by the anterior arch of C1 and the transverse atlantal ligament rotates

35

What is a common name for the diarthrosis sellar joint?

synovial saddle joint

36

What example of synovial saddle (diarthorsis sellar) joint is identified along the spine?

the joint of Luschka of typical cervicals is a modified sellar joint

37

Which joint classification exhibits a knuckle-shaped surface on one side of the joint and a concave surface on the other side?

diarthrosis condylar

38

What example of the diarthorsis condylar joint is identified along the spine?

the atlanto-occipital joint may be classified as a diarthrosis condylar joint

39

Which joint classification exhibits a knuckle-shaped surface on one side of the joint and an elliptical, concave surface of the other side?

diarthrosis ellipsoidal

40

What example of the diarthrosis ellipsoidal joint is identified along the spine?

the atlanto-occipital joint may be classified as a diarthrosis ellipsoidal joint

41

Which synovial joint classifications are now often interchanged in textbooks?

ellipsoidal and condylar synovial joints