VI. Regions of the Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in VI. Regions of the Vertebral Column Deck (525):
1

Which mammals do not have seven cervical vertebrae?

the two toed sloth, manatee, ant bear, and three toed sloth

2

Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?

ant bear, three-toed sloth

3

Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?

two-toed sloth, manatee

4

What is the number of vertebrae in the typical cervical spine?

seven segments

5

Which vertebrae are typical cervicals?

C3-C6

6

Which vertebrae are atypical cervicals?

C1, C2, C7

7

What is the shape of the typical cervical vertebral body from the cranial view?

rectangular

8

What is the effect of aging on the cervical vertebral body?

it diminishes the overall height of the vertebral body

9

What is the appearance of the typical cervical vertebral body from the lateral view?

posterior height is greater than anterior height by a few millimeters

10

What would be the direction of the cervical curve based on osseous features?

posterior or kyphotic

11

What accounts for the direction of the typical cervical curve?

the intervertebral disc height

12

What is the direction of the typical cervical curve?

anterior or lordotic

13

Which vertebral couples will demonstrate a decrease in intervertebral disc height?

C2/C3 down to C4/C5

14

At which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height?

C5/C6

15

What are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

16

What are the names of the lateral modification of the superior epiphyseal rim?

unicate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus or lateral lip

17

At what developemental age will the uncinate process first be observed?

3rd-4th fetal month

18

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

19

What are the names given to the lateral modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim?

lateral groove or enchancrure

20

What is the joint classification for the anterior lip - anterior longitudinal ligament - anterior groove articulation?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

21

What is the joint classification for the posterior lip - posterior longitudinal ligament - posterior groove articulation?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesomosis

22

What is the joint classification for the unicate process - lateral groove articulation?

modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

23

What is the joint classification for the spongy bone - intervertebral disc articulation?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

24

What joint surfaces are present on the upper surface of the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

anterior groove, right uncinate process, left uncinate process, posterior groove and superior spongy bone surface

25

How many joints are present on the upper surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?

five

26

What joint surfaces are present on the lower surface of the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

anterior lip, right lateral groove, left lateral groove, posterior lip, and inferior spongy bone surface

27

How many joints are present on the lower surface of a typical cervical vertebral body?

five

28

How many total joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

ten

29

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

right and left uncinate process, right and left lateral groove

30

What is the name given to the uncinate process - lateral groove articulation?

joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint

31

The joint of Luschka is formed from what surfaces?

the uncinate process and lateral groove

32

How many total synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

four

33

What does the recent literature suggest as to the nature of the joint of Luschka?

the joint is representative of the intervertebral disc aging, which results in loss of lamellar integrity near the joint

34

What is the functional significance of the joint of Luschka?

it appears to stabilize the intervertebral disc while accommodating flexion - extension and requiring couple motion (axial rotation with lateral bending) in the cervical spine

35

How many spongy bone - intervertebral disc articulation - spongy bone articulations are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

two

36

How many cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joints are present on the vertebral body of a typical cervical?

two

37

What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body?

the longus colli muscle

38

What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical?

posterolateral, 45 degrees

39

At what location on the vertebral body of a typical cervical will the pedicle attach?

to the side and in the center of the vertebral body

40

In the vertebral couple, which cervical vertebral body will contribute more toward the height of the intervertebral foramen?

neither, both contribute equally to the intervertebral foramen height

41

What surface feature is located at the lower margin of the pedicle?

inferior vertebral notch

42

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the superior vertebral notch of C5?

C5 spinal nerve

43

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on the inferior vertebral notch of C5?

C6 spinal nerve

44

What is the direction of projection of the cervical lamina?

posteromedially

45

What ligament attaches to the lamina of a typical cervical?

ligamentum flavum

46

What joint classification will be associated with the ligamentum flavum and its attachment?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

47

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature?

para-articular processes

48

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will be associated with which classification of bone?

accessory bone

49

Ossificaiton within the length of the ligament flavum will be associated with which classification of bone?

heterotopic bone

50

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of a typical cervical vertebra?

heart-shaped or triangular

51

Which is the greatest diameter of the vertebral foramen of typical cervicals?

transverse

52

What soft tissue diameter mimics the outline of the typical cervical vertebral foramen?

the transverse diameter of the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord

53

The greatest transverse diameter of the typical cervical vertebra occurs at ...

C6

54

The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple?

C5/C6

55

What osseous parts form the typical cervical vertebrae transverse process?

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

56

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the lamina pedicle junction.

true transverse process, posterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, anterior tubercle, costal element

57

What is the distal modification of the costal element of a typical cervical vertebra?

the anterior tubercle

58

What muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

anterior scalene, longus capitis, longus colli, anterior intertransversarii

59

What is the distal modification of the true transverse process of typical cervicals?

the posterior tubercle

60

What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators, and posterior intertransversarii

61

What bony feature connects the anterior and posterior tubercles of a typical cervical transverse process?

costotransverse bar or intertubercular lamella

62

What muscles will attach to the costotransverse bar?

middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii

63

What is the name given to the collective rib-forming region?

the pleurapophysis

64

What produces the primary tension on the transverse process that will cause remodeling in the anterolateral and inferior directions?

cervical spinal nerves as they are directed anterolaterally and inferiorly to form the cervical and brachial plexuses

65

What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar?

sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

66

What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?

60 degrees anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane), 15 degrees inferiorly (from the horizontal plane)

67

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?

the carotid tubercle

68

What will cause remodeling of the anterior tubercle at C6?

the common carotid artery

69

What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

70

What part of the peripheral nerve system is observed in the transverse foramen of typical cervical vertebra?

postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers of the autonomic (involuntary or visceral) nerve system

71

What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of typical cervical vertebrae?

the articular pillar

72

What is the name of the surface feature observed between the ends of the articular pillar?

the groove/sulcus for the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

73

What nerve indents the articular pillar of typical cervical vertebrae?

the medial branch of the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

74

What is the classic angulation of typical cervical articular facets?

40 to 45 degrees from the coronal plane

75

Recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical articular facets?

55 to 60 degrees

76

What is the orientation of the typical cervical superior articular facet?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

77

What is the orientation of the typical cervical inferior articular facet?

forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

78

What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

the longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, and rotators

79

What muscles blend with the capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses?

the semispinalis capitis, multifidus, and rotator longus joint

80

What is the joint classification for the typical cervical zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

81

What modifications of the synovial joint are observed in the cervical spine?

meniscoidal folds

82

What function will meniscoidal folds provide in cervical zygapophyses?

they are assumed to distribute pressure across the joint surface

83

The greatest range of flexion - extension among the typical cervical vertebrae occurs at which vertebral couple?

typically C5/C6

84

What motions are coupled in the cervical spine?

lateral bending and axial rotation

85

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will be similar for what cervical vertebral couples?

the C2/C3, C3/C4, C4/C5 vertebral couples

86

Ranges of coupled motion among the typical cervical vertebrae will being to decrease at what cervical vertebral couple?

the C5/C6 vertebral couple

87

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

they are bifid

88

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cervical spinous process?

they are non-bifid

89

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

90

What muscles may attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotators, and interspinalis

91

What ligaments will attach to the typical cervical spinous process?

the interspinous ligament and ligamentum nuchae

92

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the lateral groove and vertebral body of the segment above, the uncinate process and vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disc, and the posterior longitudinal ligament

93

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the inferior articular process (post-zygapophysis), the superior articular process (pre-zygapophysis), the capsular ligament, and the ligamentum flavum

94

What will form the superior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

95

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical cervical intervertebral foramen?

the superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

96

What is the unique anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen for the C4 spinal nerve?

the lateral groove of C3 and uncinate process of C4 forming the joint of Luschka

97

What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?

atlas

98

What features are lacking at C1?

vertebral body, pedicles, a spinous process, and the intervertebral disc

99

What is though to represent the pedicle at C1?

the anterior arch

100

What osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior tubercle

101

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

102

What ligaments will attach to the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior longitudinal, anterior atlanto-occipital, and anterior atlanto-axial ligaments

103

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

104

What joint classifications are observed on the anterior arch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint

105

What is the contribution of the lateral mass to the circumference of C1?

forty percent; twenty percent for each lateral mass

106

What is the morphology of the superior articular facet of C1?

they are elliptical, closer together in front and often demonstrate an elevation subdividing the facet surface into two separate surfaces

107

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

108

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-occipital zygapophysis?

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint

109

What are the morphological characteristics of the inferior articular facet of C1?

asymmetrical, slightly concave or flattened

110

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

backward, medial, and downward (BMD)

111

What is the joint classification of the atlanto-axial zygapophysis?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

112

What is the name of the rounded elevation on the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

113

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scapula, splenius cervicis, and rectus capitis anterior

114

What is the contribution of the posterior arch to the circumference of C1?

about forty percent

115

What part of C1 represents the spinous process?

posterior tubercle of the posterior arch

116

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males: about fifty millimeters
females: about thirty-seven millimeters

117

What attaches tot he posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and ligamentum nuchae

118

What superior surface modifications of the posterior arch of C1 are present?

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery and arcuate rim

119

What attaches to the arcuate rim of C1?

the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

120

What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

it is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas, and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone

121

Ossification of the free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament results in which atypical bone classification?

accessory bone

122

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

about age 7 years old

123

Based on the amount of ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament what structures will form?

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

124

What may be formed by ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?

a partial ponticulus posticus or incomplete ponticulus posticus

125

What forms the types of ponticulus posticus?

ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

126

What are the attachment sites of the ponticulus posticus?

it is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas and to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas

127

What other name may be used to identify a ponticulus posticus?

Kimmerle's anomaly

128

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

129

Ponticulus posticushas observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

130

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1% - 41%

131

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticulus posticus?

female

132

What is the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus versus an incomplete ponticulus posticus?

the incidence of a complete ponticulus posticus is about fifteen percent; the incidence of an incomplete ponticulus posticus may be as high as forty-one percent

133

What is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1?

"inferior vertebral notch" and an attachment site for the posterior atlanto-axial ligament

134

What joint classification(s) may be observed on the posterior arch of C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

135

What is the location of the "zygapophysis" relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina?

it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

136

What is the general appearance of the transverse process of C1?

triangular

137

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C1?

costal element, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

138

What osseous parts of the transverse process are absent at C1?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

139

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, middle scalene, levator scapula, splenius cervicis, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, and intertransversarii muscles

140

What suboccipital muscles are known to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

141

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

142

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

the lateral mass and the transverse process of atlas

143

What forms of the lateral bridges are observed in the population?

incomplete lateral bridges and complete lateral bridges

144

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

the retrotransverse foramen

145

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery, a branch from the suboccipital nerve and veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

146

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is most numerous?

ponticulus posticus

147

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

lateral bridges

148

What is observed in the transverse foramen C1?

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

149

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

males: 78 millimeters
females: 72 millimeters

150

Is there a gender variation for the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin?

not a significant difference

151

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

a little over 30 millimeters for both males and females

152

What joint classifications are observed at C1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint, synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal joint, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

153

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

five

154

What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets, and the fovea dentis

155

What names are given to C2?

axis or epistropheus

156

What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

the dens or odontoid process

157

How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

five

158

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

159

Which joint classifications are represented at the odontoid process of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joints

160

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

lordotic dens

161

What is the name/classification given to the odontoid process when the tip of the dens is directed posterior?

lordotic dens

162

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

163

What is the name/classification given to the odontoid process when the tip of the dens is directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

164

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves, and cancellous bone

165

How many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

five

166

What joint classifications are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

167

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

ten

168

What joint classifications are present at the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

169

What ligaments will attach posteriorly to the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

membrana tectoria and posterior longitudinal ligament

170

What ligament will represent the cranial continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

membrana tectoria

171

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?

membrana tectoria

172

What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?

posterior longitudinal ligament

173

What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

the superior articular process

174

What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

on the lamina-pedicle junction

175

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, and ligamentum flavum

176

What muscle attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior

177

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen of C2?

oval to triangular

178

What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?

they are asymmetrical and slightly convex

179

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

180

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

forward, lateral, and down (FoLD)

181

What is the classification of the zygapophyseal joints of C2?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

182

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C3?

longissimus cervicis

183

What osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

anterior tubercle and costotransverse bar

184

What will be observed in the transverse foramen at C2?

vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

185

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

males: fifty-seven millimeters
females: fifty millimeters

186

What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis, longissimus cervicis, and intertransversarii

187

Anterior and posterior intertransversarii are first observed at what vertebral couple?

C2 and C3

188

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?

bifid

189

What is the location for palpation of the spinous process of C2?

in the midline, about two inches below the external occipital protuberance

190

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidus, rotators, and interspinalis muscles

191

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C2?

ligamentum nuchae, interspinous ligaments

192

What names may be given to C7?

vertebra prominens and vertebral prominence

193

What is the name given to the topographical elevation observed at the base of the neck?

vertebral prominence

194

What name is given only to C7?

vertebra prominens

195

In what percent of men and of women does C7 become the vertebral prominence?

men: eighty-six percent
women: seventy-nine percent

196

What is the segment and gender bias for vertebrae other than C7 becoming the vertebral prominence?

C6 is more common in females and T1 is more common in males

197

What joint surfaces are present at the superior margin of the vertebral body of C7?

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes, cancellous bone

198

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior margin of the vertebral body of C7?

the anterior and posterior margins of the inferior epiphyseal rim, cancellous bone

199

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C7?

eight

200

What joint classifications are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) joint

201

How many synovial joint surfaces are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

two

202

What synvoial joint surfaces are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

the right and left uncinate processes

203

What muscle(s) attaches to the vertebral body of C7?

longus colli muscle

204

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C7?

costal element, anterior tuberlce, costotransverse bar, posterior tuberlce, true transverse process

205

What features are typically present in the transverse foramen of C7?

vertebral venous plexus, postganglionic sympathetic motor fibers

206

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C7?

middle scalene, iliocostalis thoracis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, rotators, intertransversarii, and levator costarum brevis

207

What is the angulation of the articular facet at C7?

more vertical at about 63 degrees

208

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C7?

backward, upward, medial (BUM)

209

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7?

forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD)

210

What muscles will attach to the articular process of C7?

longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus

211

What are the features of the spinous process of C7?

long, horizontal, nonbifid

212

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C7?

trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior superior, splenius capitis, spinalis capitis, spinalis cervicis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotators, and interspinalis

213

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C7?

ligamentum nuchae and interspinous ligaments

214

The vertebral artery on which side is typically larger?

left vertebral artery

215

What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery?

men have larger vertebral arteries than women

216

What was the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency?

the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test

217

Which side artery was tested during the course of the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

the ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation

218

What are the symptoms of failure of the vertebral artery to compensate during the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?

dizziness, vertigo, nausea are common complaints

219

The vertebral artery is typically a branch of which artery?

subclavian artery

220

Typically, at what level will the vertebral artery first become located in the transverse foramen?

C6

221

At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop?

the atlanto-axial interspace

222

At what location will the vertebral artery form its second compensatory loop?

the atlanto-occipital interspace

223

At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen?

both C1 and C2

224

What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2, C1, and occiput?

the increased length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations

225

What happens to the vertebral artery as it enters the vertebral foramen of C1?

the adventitia of the artery blends with the dura mater and arachnoid mater; as a result the artery lies in the subarachnoid space

226

What happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1?

the vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine-medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery

227

What artery is formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries?

the basilar artery

228

Which suboccipital muscles attach to C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior

229

Which suboccipital muscles attach to C2?

rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior

230

Which erector spinae muscles attach to the cervical spine?

iliocostalis thoracis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis

231

Which transversospinalis muscles attach to the cervical spine?

semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidus, and rotators

232

What joint classifications are present at C1?

synovial (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal, synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia), and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

233

What joint classifications are present at C2?

synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid), synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint

234

What joint classifications are present at each typical cervical?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

235

What joint classifications are present at C7?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis

236

What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C1 nerve from the spinal canal?

occipital condyle, superior articular process of C1, capsular ligament, arcuate rim, groove for the vertebral artery, posterior atlanto-occipital ligament

237

What forms the boundaries for the ext of the C2 nerve from the spinal canal?

inferior articular process of C1, superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament, inferior vertebral notch of C1, superior vertebral notch of C2, posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2, and posterior atlanto-axial ligament

238

What forms the anterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

inferior articular process of C1, superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament

239

What forms the posterior boundary of the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

the posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2 and posterior atlanto-axial ligament

240

What forms the anterior boundary for the C3-C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

the vertebral bodies, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, uncinate process, lateral groove

241

What forms the anterior boundary for the C8 nerve exit from the spinal canal?

the vertebral bodies of C7 and T1, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament of the costocentral joint, superior costal facet of T1 and articular surface of the first rib

242

What are the superior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?

C1 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)
C2 is backward, upward, lateral (BUL)
C3-C7 is backward, upward, medial (BUM)

243

What are the inferior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?

C1 is backward, downward, medial (BMD)
C2-C6 is forward, downward, lateral (FoLD), C7 is forward, downward, medial (ForMeD)

244

How many synovial joints are identified for each cervical vertebra?

C1 = five
C2 = eight
C3-6 = eight
C7 = six

245

How many joint are identified at the vertebral body of each cervical vertebra?

C1 = none
C2 = ten
C3-6 = ten
C7 = eight

246

Which thoracic segments are considered the typical thoracics?

T2-T8 segments

247

Which thoracic segments are considered the atypical thoracics?

T1, T9-T12

248

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental gropus?

the vertebral body, transverse process, articular process, and spinous process

249

What is the outline of the vertebral body of a typical thoracic from superior view?

triangular

250

On cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T2-T4 group?

the vertebral body will have bilaterally convex sides

251

On cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T5-T8 group?

the left side of the vertebral body will be flatened, the right side convex

252

What is the appearance of the vertebral body from the anterior view for T2-T4?

both sides will appear to be scalloped (indented) between the epiphyseal rims

253

What is the appearance of the vertebral body from the anterior view for T5-T8?

the left side will appear to be less scalloped (indented) between the epiphyseal rims compared to the right side

254

What is the cause for the flattening of the left side of the vertebral body on T5-T8?

The descending thoracic aorta will come to lie on the left side of the vertebral body in this region and prevent the epiphyseal plate cartilage from deforming as much as on the right side. When the epiphyseal plates ossify, the epiphyseal rim will not be pushed out as far on the left so that side of the vertebral body appears to be less scalloped.

255

What is the name given to the left side appearance of the vertebral body of T5-T8?

the aortic impression

256

What is the aortic impression?

the flattening of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims on the left side of the vertebral body of T5-T8 which gives the vertebral body a less scalloped or less indented appearance on that side

257

What part of the vertebral body is most influenced by the aorta at T5-T8?

the left side superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

258

What is the height pattern of the typical thoracic vertebral body?

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

259

What is the height pattern of intervertebral discs in the typical thoracic region?

the intervertebral discs are rather planar or flat with no apparent height difference between anterior and posterior heights

260

What is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine?

the vertebral body height differences

261

In terms of the anterior-posterior curves of the vertebral column, what direction will the thoracic spine face?

posterior

262

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

a kyphotic curve

263

What joints are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

vertebral body to anterior longitudinal ligament at the epiphyseal rims; vertebral body to posterior longitudinal ligametn at the epiphyseal rims; vertebral body to vertebral body via the intervertebral discs; vertebral body to capitulum of a rib (costocentral joint)

264

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

265

What are the examples of fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joints at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rim to anterior longitudinal ligament
superior and inferior epiphyseal rim to posterior longitudinal ligament

266

What are the examples of cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joints at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

superior epiphyseal rim to intervertebral disc
inferior epiphyseal rim to intervertebral disc

267

What are the examples of synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joints at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

right and left superior costal demi-facet to inferior articular surface of the rib head
right and left inferior costal demi-facet to superior articular surface of the rib head

268

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

four

269

How many symphysis joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

two

270

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

typically four are identified (as many as eight if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

271

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

typically ten (fourteen if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

272

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?

costocentral joint

273

How many costocentral joints are formed at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

four

274

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

the right and left superior and the right and left inferior costal demi-facets

275

What is the relationship between the vertebral body surface and the rib head surface in the costocentral joint of a typical thoracic?

the superior costal demi-facet of the vertebral body will joint with the inferior articular surface of the head of the rib
the inferior costal demi-facet of the vertebral body will joint with the superior articular surface of the head of the rib

276

Which of the demi-facets on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic is larger?

the superior costal demi-facet

277

What feature will provide assistance in maintaining the stability of the intervertebral foramen in the typical thoracics?

the costocentral joint or ribs

278

What is the rib - vertebral body combination at the intervertebral foramen for the ... nerve? (Let's use the T6 nerve)

the inferior costal demi-facet of T6 will joint with the superior articular surface of the head of the seventh rib
the superior costal demi-facet of T7 will joint with the inferior articular surface of the head of the seventh rib

279

What ligaments support the costocentral joint?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament and the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

280

To what structures will the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament attach?

the hed of the rib, both vertebral bodies in the vertebral couple and the intervertebral disc

281

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligametn will attach to which segment(s) at the T3 spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

the vertebral body of T3 and the vertebral body of T4

282

What does the costocentral intra-articular or interarticular ligament connect to?

the interarticular or intra-articular crest of the head of the rib and the intervertebral disc

283

What is the size relationship between the articulating surface of the head of the rib and the costal demi-facet surface?

the surface is greater than the costal demi-facet surface

284

Which muscle(s) is attached to the vertebral body of T2 or T3?

the longus colli

285

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the typical thoracic vertebral body?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

286

What is the angulation of the pedicle in the typical thoracic region?

ten to fifteen degrees posterolateral from the sagittal plane

287

Which x-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of atypical thoracic?

the lateral view

288

Which vertebral notch or incisure is said to prominent?

the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

289

What is the nerve - vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen?

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the nerve is the same as the number of the upper thoracic in the vertebral couple

290

What is the rib - vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen?

in the intervertebral foramen, the number of the rib is the same as the number of the lower thoracic in the vertebral couple

291

What is the appearance and position of the lamina in a typical thoracic?

the lamina is short, broad, and thick and lies next to the spinous process

292

What is the overlap of the lamina called in the typical thoracic region?

shingling

293

What is the outline of the vertebral foramen in the typical thoracic region?

oval to circular

294

In which plane will the size of the vertebral foramen of a typical thoracic be greatest?

the transverse plane, the vertebral transverse diameter

295

What is the direction of the transverse process in the typical thoracics?

the transverse process projects more posterior with each inferior vertebra

296

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

the transverse tubercle

297

What is the distance between the transverse tubercles in the typical thoracic region?

from T2 each transverse diameter becomes shorter as the transverse processes angle more posterior

298

What is present on the transverse tubercle of a typical thoracic?

the transverse costal facet

299

What is the rib - transverse process relationship for the typical thoracics?

the number of the rib is the same as the number of the vertebra whose transverse process is being stuied; fifth rib with T5 transverse process

300

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets fro T2-T6?

they face forward and outward

301

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets from T7-T9?

they face forward, outward, and upward

302

What is the classification of the costatransverse joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

303

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint?

the transverse costal facet and the articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

304

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of a typical thoracic?

the superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

305

The superior costotransverse ligament of rib five will attach to which vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T4

306

The superior costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T4 will attach to rib ...

five

307

The inferior costotransverse ligament of rib five will attach to which vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T5

308

The inferior costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T5 will attach to rib ...

five

309

The lateral costotransverse ligament of rib five will attach to which segmental bony feature?

the transverse process of T5

310

The lateral costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T5 will attach to rib ...

five

311

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

intertransverse , capsular costotransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

312

Which joint classification is associated with the intertransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

313

Which muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis thoracis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus, and levator costarum brevis

314

Of the muscles attaching to the transverse process of typical thoracics, which ones will attach to the T5-T8 vertebral segments?

semispinalis thoracis and levator costarum longus

315

Which of the muscles attaching to the transverse process of typical thoracics are examples of the erector spinae group?

the longissimus muscles

316

Which erector spinae muscles will not attach to the transverse process of typical thoracics?

spinalis and iliocostalis muscles

317

Which of the muscles attaching to the transverse process of typical thoracics are examples of the transversospinalis muscle group?

the semispinalis, multifidus, and rotators

318

How can you distinguish between a T2-T4 from T5-T8 segment using the articular process?

at T2-T4 the width between the superior articular processes is greater than the width between the inferior articular processes of the vertebra
at T5-T8 the width between the superior articular processes is equal to or the same as the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra

319

How does the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T2-T4 region?

the superior articular process transverse diameter is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

320

How do the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T5-T8 region?

the superior articular process transverse diameter is the same as or equal to the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

321

What is the angulation of the articular facet of a typical thoracic?

about ten to twenty degrees from the coronal plane; sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

322

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

they face backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

323

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

they face forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

324

What is the curvature of the superior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

they are slightly convex

325

What is the curvature of the inferior articular facet of a typical thoracic?

they are slightly concave

326

What is the joint classification of the articular facet joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint

327

How many synovial joints are present at a typical thoracic?

ten

328

Identify the synovial joint surfaces present on a typical thoracic.

two superior costal demi-facets
two inferior costal demi-facets
two transverse costal facets
two superior articular facets
two inferior articular facets

329

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are present on a typical thoracic?

six

330

Identify the synovial joint surfaces for ribs that are present on a typical thoracic.

two superior costal demi-facets
two inferior costal demi-facets
two transverse costal facets

331

What is the relationship of the inferior articular process and the lamina?

they blend together

332

What name is given to the region between the superior and inferior articular processes in the typical thoracics?

the pars interarticularis

333

What is the pars interarticularis?

the region between the superior and inferior articular processes

334

What part of a vertebra arises laterally from the pars interarticularis?

the transverse process

335

What part of a vertebra arises medially from the pars interarticularis?

the lamina

336

What is the orientation of the spinous process of a typical thoracic?

they slant backward and downward

337

What is the name given to the overlap of spinous processes in the thoracic region?

imbrication

338

What is imbrication?

the overlap of spinous processes

339

Imbrication will be more pronounced for what region of the throacics?

T5-T8

340

Which thoracic has the longest spinous process?

T8

341

How will the angulation of the spinous process be measured?

from the horizontal plane to the undersurface of the spinous process

342

What is the angulation of the spinous process in the typical thoracic region?

the undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane
the undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up sixty degrees from the horizontal planes

343

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T2-T4?

the undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane

344

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T5-T8?

the undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

345

Which vertebrae will have a spinous process angulation of up to forty degrees?

T2-T4

346

Which vertebrae will have a spinous process angulation of up to sixty degrees?

T5-T8

347

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

348

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic?

the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments

349

What joint classification is associated with typical thoracic spinous process ligaments?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

350

Which muscles may attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic?

trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, serratus posterior superior, splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracics, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, and interspinalis

351

What is the muscle layer - muscle example combination for muscles attaching to the spinous process in the typical thoracics?

layer one - trapezius, latissimus dorsi
layer two - rhomboid major
layer three - serratus posterior superior
layer four - spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis
layer five - semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis

352

Which muscles attaching to the spinous process of a typical thoracic are not included in any muscle layer of the true back?

splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, and interspinalis

353

What joint classifications are present at every typical thoracic vertebra?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

354

The fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint will occur at what parts of a typical thoracic vertebra?

vertebral body, lamina, transverse process, and spinous process

355

At what part(s) of a typical thoracic vertebra will the cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint be observed?

vertebral body

356

At what part(s) of a typical thoracic vertebra will the synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint be observed?

vertebral body, transverse process, and articular process

357

Which thoracic segments are considered the atypical throacics?

T1, T9-T12

358

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T1 from superior view?

somewhat rectangular with curved anterior margins

359

What is the appearance of the vertebral body of T1 from the anterior view?

both sides will appear to be scalloped (indented) between the epiphyseal rims

360

What is the height pattern of the T1 vertebral body?

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

361

What is the appearance of the superior surface of the vertebral body of T1?

it is somewhat cup-shaped with elevations at the posterior and lateral margin

362

What may the elevations on the vertebral body of T1 represent?

uncinate processes

363

What is the appeatance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of T1?

typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristic of the cervicals

364

What joints are identified at the vertebral body of T1?

vertebral body to the longitudinal ligaments at the epiphyseal rims
vertebral body to vertebral body via the intervertebral discs
vertebral body to the head of a rib (costocentral joint)

365

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of T1?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartiaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
the modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) is only observed as an anatomical variation

366

What fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joints form at the T1 vertebral body?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to anterior longitudinal ligament
supeior and inferior epiphyseal rims to posterior longitudinal ligament

367

What are the cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joints at the T1 vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal rim to intervertebral disc
inferior epiphyseal rim to intervertebral disc

368

What are examples of synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joints at the T1 vertebral body?

superior costal facet to articular surface of the head of the first rib
inferior costal demi-facet to superior articular surface of the head of the second rib

369

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

four normally

370

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T1?

two

371

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

typically four are identified (as many as eight if the rib articulation is included)

372

How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

typically ten (fourteen if the rib ligaments are included)

373

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?

costocentral joint

374

How many costocentral joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?

four

375

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the T1 vertebral body?

the right and left superior costal facet
the right and left inferior costal demi-facet

376

What is the relationship between the vertebral body surface and the rib head surface in the costocentral joints of T1?

the superior costal facet of the vertebral body will joint completely with the articular surface of the head of the first rib
the inferior costal demi-facet of the vertebral body will joint with the superior articular surface of the head of the second rib

377

What is the rib - vertebral body combination at the intervertebral foramen for the eight cervical nerve?

the superior costal facet of T1 will joint with the articular surface of the head of the first rib

378

What is the rib - vertebral body combination at the intervertebral foramen for the first thoracic nerve?

the inferior costal facet of T1 will joint with the superior articular surface of the head of the second rib
the superior costal demi-facet of T12 will joint with the inferior articular surface of the head of the second rib

379

What ligament supports the costocentral joint of the first rib?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament

380

What ligaments support the costocentral joint of the second rib?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament and the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

381

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligament will attach to what features?

the head of the rib and the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc at the costocentral joint

382

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligament will attach to which segment(s) at the C8 spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

the vertebral body of C7 and the vertebral body of T1

383

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligament will attach to which segment(s) at the T1 spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

the vertebral body of T1 and the vertebral body of T2

384

What does the costocentral intra-articular or interarticular ligametn connect to?

the interarticular or intra-articular crest of the head of the rib and the intervertebral disc

385

Which muscle(s) is attached to the vertebral body of T1?

the longus colli

386

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body of T1?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

387

Which spinal nerve - vertebral notch or incisure combination is present at T1?

C8 spinal nerve - the superiorvertebral notch or incisure of T1
T1 spinal nerve - the inferior vertebral notch or incisure of T1

388

What is the direction of the transverse process at T1?

the transverse process projects nearly straight out into the lateral plane

389

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T1?

the transverse tubercle

390

What is present on the transverse tubercle of T1?

the transverse costal facet

391

What is the rib - transverse process relationship for T1?

the first rib articulates with the transverse costal facet of T1

392

What is the orienation of the transverse costal facets for T1?

they face forward and outward

393

What is the classification of the costotransverse joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

394

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint?

the transverse costal facet and the articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

395

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of T1?

the inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments

396

What ligament is absent at the costotransverse joint of T1?

the superior costotransverse ligament

397

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of T1?

intertransverse, capsular costotransverse, superior costotransverse, ifnerior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse

398

Which costotransverse joint will the supeior costotransverse ligament of T1 support?

the second rib costotransverse joint

399

The superior costotransverse ligament of rib two will attach to which vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T1

400

The superior costotransverse ligament of T1 will attach to which rib?

the second rib

401

The inferior costotransverse ligament of rib on will attach to which vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T1

402

The inferior costotransverse ligament of T1 will attach to which rib?

the first rib

403

The lateral costotransverse ligament of rib one will attach to which segmental bony feature?

the transverse process of T1

404

The lateral costotransverse ligament of T1 will attach to which rib?

the first rib

405

What joint classification is associated with the intertrasnversarii, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

406

What muscles attach to the transverse process of T1?

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarri, levator costarum brevis

407

Which specific transversospinalis muscle is absent from T1?

semispinalis thoracis

408

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of T1?

they face backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

409

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of T1?

they face forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

410

What is the curvature of the superior articular facet of T1?

they are slightly convex

411

What is the curvature of the inferior articular facet of T1?

they are slightly concave

412

What is the classification of the articular facet joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

413

How many synovial joints are present at T1?

ten

414

Identify the synovial joint surfaces present at T1.

two superior costal facets, two inferior costal demi-facets, two transverse costal facets, two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets

415

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are present at T1?

six

416

Identify the synovial joint surfaces for ribs that are present at T1.

two superior costal facets, two inferior costal demi-facets, two transverse costal facets

417

What is the angulatin of the spinous process of T1?

the undersurface of the T1 spinous process will be nearly horizontal from the horizontal plane

418

What name is used to identify the topographical landmark at the base of the neck?

vertebral prominence

419

Which vertebrae have been identified as forming the vertebral prominence?

C6, C7, T1

420

What is the gender bias associated with T1 as the vertebral prominence?

males (9%) are more likely than females (6%)to demonstrate T1 as the vertebral prominence

421

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

422

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of T1?

the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments

423

Ligaments attaching to the spinous process of T1 have what joint classification?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

424

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T1?

the trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior superior, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, and interspinalis

425

Which of the muscles of the five layers of the true back are present at the spinous process of T1?

the trapezius, rhomboid minor, serratus posterior superior, spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis

426

What is the muscle layer - muscle example combination for muscles attaching to the spinous process of T1?

layer one - trapezius
layer two - rhomboid minor
layer three - serratus posterior superior
layer four - spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis
layer five - semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis

427

Which muscles attaching to the spinous process of T1 are not included in any muscle layer of the true back?

splenius capitis and interspinalis

428

What joint classifications are present at the T1 vertebra?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

429

At what part(s) of T1 will a fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint be observed?

vertebral body, lamina, transverse process, and spinous process

430

At what part(s) of T1 will the cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joint be observed?

vertebral body

431

At what part(s) of T1 will the synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint be observed?

vertebral body, transverse process, articular process

432

Which thoracic segments are considered atypical thoracics?

T1, T9-T12

433

What is the height pattern of the T9 vertebral body?

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

434

What is the height pattern of intervertebral discs in the thoracic region?

the intervertebral discs are rather planar or flat with no apparent height difference between anterior and posterior heights

435

What is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine?

the vertebral body height difference

436

What is the direction of the anterior - posterior curve directions in the thoracic spine?

posterior

437

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

a kyphotic curve

438

What structures joint at the vertebral body of T9?

anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, intervertebral discs, and the head of a rib(s)

439

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of T9?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrodia arthrodia)

440

What fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joints form at the T9 vertebral body?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to anterior longitudinal ligament
superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to posterior longitudinal ligament

441

What cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joints form at the T9 vertebral body?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to intervertebral disc

442

What are the examples of synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia joints at the T9 vertebral body?

superior costal demi-facet to inferior articular surface of the rib head (right and left)
inferior costal demi-facet to superior articular surface of the rib head (right and left)

443

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T9?

four

444

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T9?

two

445

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T9?

typically four are identified (as manay as eight if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

446

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T9?

typically ten (fourteen if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

447

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?

costocentral joint

448

How many costocentral joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T9?

four

449

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T9?

right and left superior costal demi-facets; right and left inferior costal demi-facets

450

Which synovial joint surfaces may be absent from the vertebral body of T9?

inferior costal demi-facets

451

What is the relationship between the vertebral body surface and the rib head/capitulum surface for the costocentral joint of T9?

the superior costal demi-facets of T9 will joint with the inferior articular surfaces on the head of the ninth rib
the inferior costal demi-facets of T9 will joint with the superior articular surfaces on the head of the tenth rib

452

Which of the demi-facets on the vertebral body of T9 is larger?

the superior costal demi-facet

453

How does the superior costal demi-facet compare in size with those T2-T8?

it is larger

454

What feature will provide assistance in maintaining the stability of the intervertebral foramen at T9?

the costocentral joint or ribs

455

What ligaments support the costocentral joint?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligament and the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

456

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments will attach to what features?

the head of the rib, the vertebral bodies of the vertebral couple and the intervertebral disc

457

What is the size relationship between the articulating surface on the head of the rib and the costal demi-facet surface?

the rib surface is greater than the costal demi-face surface

458

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T9?

the transverse tubercle

459

What is present on the transverse tubercle of T9?

the transverse costal facet

460

What is the rib - transverse process relationship for T9?

the ninth rib articulates with T9 transverse process

461

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets for T9?

forward, outward, and upward

462

What is the classification of the costotransverse joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

463

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint?

the transverse costal facet and the articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

464

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of T9?

the superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

465

What ligaments attach to the transverse process of T9?

intertransverse, capsular costotransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments

466

Which costotransverse joint will the superior costotransverse ligament of T9 support?

the tenth rib costotransverse joint

467

The superior costotransverse ligament of rib nine will attach to which vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T8

468

The superior costotransverse ligament of T9 will attach to which rib?

the tenth rib

469

The inferior costotransverse ligament of rib nine will attach to twhich vertebral feature?

the transverse process of T9

470

The inferior costotransverse ligament of T9 will attach to which rib?

the ninth rib

471

The lateral costotransverse ligament of rib nine will attach to which segmental bony feature?

the transverse process of T9

472

The lateral costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T9 attaches to which rib?

the ninth rib

473

What joint classification is associated with the intertransverse, superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

474

Which muscles attach to the transverse process of T9?

the longissimus thoracis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus, and levator costarum brevis

475

What is the orientation of the superior articular facets of T9?

they face backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)

476

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of T9?

they face forward, downward, and medial (ForMeD)

477

What is the joint classification of the articular facet joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

478

How many synovial joints are typically present at T9?

ten

479

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present on T9.

two superior costal demi-facets, two inferior costal demi-facets, two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets, and two transverse costal facets

480

How many synovial joint surfaces for ribs are typically present on T9?

six

481

Identify the synovial joint surfaces for ribs that are typically present on T9.

two superior costal demi-facets, two inferior costal demi-facets, and two transverse costal facets

482

Which rib related facet may be absent on T9?

the inferior costal demi-facet

483

Which is the last thoracic vertebra to have an inferior costal demi-facet?

T9

484

What is the orientation of the spinous process of T9?

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

485

What is the length of the spinous process of T9?

it will shorten significantly from the long spinous process of T8

486

What is the generic appearance of the spinous process of T9?

shorter and more horizontal

487

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of T9?

the interspinous and supraspinous ligaments

488

What joint classification is associated with ligaments attaching to the T9 spinous process?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint

489

What muscles attach to the spinous process of T9?

the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis, and interspinalis

490

Which muscles are conspicuously absent at the T9 spinous process?

spinalis and semispinalis

491

Which thoracic segments are considered the atypical thoracics?

T1, T9-T12

492

What is the height pattern of the T10 vertebral body?

the posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters

493

What is the height pattern of intervertebral discs in the thoracic region?

the intervertebral discs are rather planar or flat with no apparent height difference between anterior and posterior heights

494

What is the principal cause of the posterior curve of the thoracic spine?

the vertebral body height differences

495

What is the direction of the anterior-posterior curve directions in the thoracic spine?

posterior

496

What is another way of naming a posterior curve pattern?

a kyphotic curve

497

What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of T10?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

498

What joints are identified at the vertebral body of T1-?

vertebral body to the longitudinal ligaments at the epiphyseal rims
vertebral body to vertebral body via the intervertebral disc
vertebral body to head of a rib (costocentral joint)

499

What are the fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joints at the T10 vertebral body?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to anterior longitudinal ligament
superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to posterior longitudinal ligament

500

What are the cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis joints at the T10 vertebral body?

superior and inferior epiphyseal rims to an intervertebral disc

501

What are the synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joints at the T10 vertebral body?

right and left superior costal demi-facets to inferior articular surface of the rib heads

502

How many synovial joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10?

two

503

How many symphysis joints are formed with the vertebral body of T10?

two

504

How many syndesmosis joints are formed at the vertebral body of T10?

typically four are identified (as many as eight if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included

505

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body and rib?

typically eight (twelve if the costocentral stellate/radiate ligaments are included)

506

What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?

costocentral joint

507

How many costocentral joints are tyipcally formed at the vertebral body of T10?

two

508

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T10?

the right and left superior costal facet

509

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T10?

inferior costal demi-facets

510

What is the relationship between the vertebral body surface and the rib head surface for the costocentral joint of T10?

the superior costal facet of T10 will joint with the inferior articular surface of the head of the tenth rib

511

What is the rib - vertebral body combination at the intervertebral foramen for the ninth thoracic nerve?

the inferior costal demi-facet of T9 may joint with the small superior articular surface of the head of the tenth rib
the superior costal facet of T10 will joint with the large inferior articular surface of the head of the tenth rib

512

What is the rib - vertebral body combinatiotypically present at the intervertebral foramenfor the tenth thoracic nerve?

the superior costal facet of T11 will joint with the articular surface of the head of the eleventh rib

513

What ligaments support the costocentral joint?

the costocentral stellate/radiate ligametn and the costocentral interarticular or intra-articular ligament

514

The costocentral stellate/radiate ligametn will attach to waht features?

the head of the rib and the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc at the costocentral joint

515

What does the costocentral intra-articular or interarticular ligament connect to?

the interarticular or intra-articular crest of the head of the rib and the intervertebral disc

516

What feature is very commonly observed on the lamina of T10?

para-articular processes

517

Para-articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment of the spine?

T10

518

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T10?

the transverse tubercle

519

What is typically present on the trasnverse tubercle of T10?

the transverse costal facet

520

What part of the transverse process may be absent on T10?

the transverse costal facet

521

What is the rib - transverse process relationship for T10?

the tenth rib articulates with T10 transverse process

522

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets for T10?

forward, outward, and upward

523

What is the classification of the costotransverse joint?

synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

524

What are the osseous parts of the costotransverse joint?

the transverse costal facet and the articular surface of the tubercle of a rib

525

What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of T10?

the supeiror costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments