III. Vertebral Column/Spinal Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in III. Vertebral Column/Spinal Column Deck (241):
1

What is the number of vertebrae in a typical adolescent?

33 segments

2

What is the number of vertebrae in a typical adult?

26 segments

3

What is the number of vertebrae in the typical spine?

24 segments

4

What constitutes the spine?

the 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae

5

How many segments unite to form the typical sacrum?

5 segments

6

How many segments unite to form the typical coccyx?

4 segments

7

What does the term "cervical" refer to?

the region of the neck

8

What is the typical number of segments in the cervical region?

7 segments

9

What does the term "thoracic" refer to?

breast plate or chest; it referred to the armor bearing region of the torso

10

What other term is often used to identify the vertebral segments of the chest?

the dorsal segments; the dorsals

11

What is the typical number of segments in the dorsal or thoracic region?

12 segments

12

What does the term "lumbar" refer to?

the loin; the region between the rib and the hip

13

What is the typical number of segments in the lumbar region?

5 segments

14

What does the term "sacrum" refer to?

the holy bone or holy region

15

What does the term "coccyx" refer to?

cuckoo birds' bill or cuckoo birds' beak

16

Which region of the spine is more stable in terms of the number of segments/vertebrae?

the cervical region

17

Which variations account for the disparity in number and morphology of vertebrae within the population?

sexual dimorophism or gender variation
ontogenetic variation (growth variation or age variation)
geographic variation or population-based variation
idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

18

What is the length of a typical male spinal column?

about 70 centimeters or 28 inches

19

What is the length of a typical female spinal column?

about 60 centimeters or 25 inches

20

What is the difference in length between a typical male and typical female spinal column?

about 3 inches

21

What is the length of the male cervical region (both measurements)?

about 12 centimeters or 5 inches

22

What is the length of the male thoracic region (both measurements)?

about 28 centimeters or 11 inches

23

What is the length of the male lumbar region (both measurements)?

about 18 centimeters or 7 inches

24

What is the length of the male sacrum (both measurements)?

about 12 centimeters or 5 inches

25

Based on the number for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?

about 58 centimeters or 23 inches

26

How does the vertebral column participate in protection of neural tissues?

the spinal cord and beginning of PNS are located within the vertebral segments

27

How does the vertebral column participate in protection of the viscera?

ribs are attached to vertebrae to form the thorax thus protecting the heart and lungs

28

What parts of the body are supported by the vertebral column?

the head, upper extremities, ribs, viscera, and pelvis

29

How does the vertebral column participate in skeletal formation?

ribs are formed from the costal processes of the embryonic vertebral template

30

What levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate weight-bearing transfer?

S1-S3 at the auricular surface

31

Distinguish between motion and locomotion.

motion is movement without travel; locomotion is movement to a new site or location

32

What is specifically responsible for shape and position of the human frame?

comparative anterior vs. posterior height of the vertebral body
comparative anterior vs. posterior height of the intervertebral disc

33

How does the vertebral column accommodate transmission?

the peripheral nerve communicates with the central nerve system via the intervertebral foramen

34

What organ(s) is (are) specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?

the eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear?

35

How is the vertebral column involved in stabilization of visceral function?

integrity of the spinal column enhances appropriate nerve system control of viscera

36

When does the embryonic disc form?

second week in utero

37

When does gastrulation occur or a 3-layered embryo form?

third week in utero

38

What are the 3 layers of the embryo called?

ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

39

Invagination of ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure?

notochord

40

What is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column?

paraxial mesoderm

41

What does paraxial mesoderm give rise to that will form the vertebral column?

somites

42

Name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite.

sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome

43

What part of the somite will give rise to the vertebral column?

sclerotome

44

List, in order, the names of the successive vertebral columns formed during development?

membranous, cartilaginous, skeletal or osseous

45

Migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature?

the perichordal blastema

46

The perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes?

neural processes and costal processes

47

What is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichordal blastemae?

intersegmental artery

48

Cell proliferation within the perichordal blastema will result in what features?

a loose cranial sclerotomite and a dense caudal sclerotomite

49

What forms between the sclerotomites of a perichordal blastema?

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

50

The intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner) gives rise to what developmental feature?

the perichordal disc

51

The perichordal disc is the presumptive location of what adult feature?

the intervertebral disc

52

What is the earliest embryonic feature that will identify the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

the intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)

53

The union of a dense caudal sclerotomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite from adjacent perichordal blastemae gives rise to what feature?

the vertebral blastema

54

What vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema?

the segmental artery

55

When will cartilage first form in the membranous vertebral blastema?

beginning in the 6th embryonic week

56

What is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage?

chondrification

57

Chondrificaiton is first identified in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?

the cervical region

58

What are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral column?

centrum center, neural arch center, transverse process center

59

How many centers of chondrification typically appear in the vertebral blastema?

six...2 for the centrum, 2 for the neural arch, and 2 for each transverse process

60

What is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra?

during the 7th embryonic week

61

Ossification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?

the lower cervical-upper thoracic region

62

What is the name given to centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

primary centers appear in utero
secondary centers appear after birth

63

What is the name given to centers of of ossification appearing in utero?

primary centers

64

What is the name given to centers of ossification appearing after birth?

secondary centers

65

What is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebrae?

3 primary centers: 5 secondary centers

66

What are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebrae?

centrum centers and neural arch centers

67

How many primary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra?

three...1 for the centrum, 2 for the neural arches

68

What is the classification of the joint forming between primary centers of ossification?

cartilage synchondrosis/amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

69

What are the names of the synchondroses forming between primary centers of ossification in the typical vertebra?

neurocentral synchondrosis and neural arch synchondrosis

70

What are the names of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?

tip of the transverse process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate centers

71

How many secondary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra?

five... 1 for the tip of each transverse process, 1 for the tip of the spinous process, and 1 for each epiphyseal plate

72

What is the classification of the joint forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?

cartilage synchondrosis/amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

73

What are the names of the synchondroses forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?

tip of the transverse process synchondrosis, tip of the spinous process synchondrosis, and epiphyseal ring synchondrosis

74

What is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra?

during puberty, typically ages 11-16 years old

75

What are the three basic osseous parts of a vertebra?

the vertebral body, vertebral arch, and the apophyseal regions

76

What is formed by the vertebral body and vertebral arch?

the vertebral foramen

77

What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?

cervical - rectangular
thoracic - triangular
lumbar - reniform

78

What is the name given to the compact bone at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal rim, inferior epiphyseal rim

79

What is the central region at the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body called?

cancellous or spongy bone

80

What is the name given to the cartilage found at the superior and inferior surface of a developing vertebral body?

superior epiphyseal plate, inferior epiphyseal plate

81

What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?

the basivertebral venous foramen

82

What is the name of the vessel entering the nutrient or vascular foramen?

osseous artery

83

What is the name given tot he large vessel exiting the back of the vertebral body?

the basivertebral vein

84

What is the semicircular region of bone attached to the back of the vertebral body called?

the vertebral arch

85

What is the name given to the anterior part of the vertebral arch?

the pedicle

86

What is the name given to the posterior part of the vertebral arch?

the lamina

87

What is the name given tot he intermediate part of the vertebral arch where the transverse process and articular processes attach?

the lamina-pedicle junction

88

What is the name of the feature located at the upper and lower surfaces of the pedicle?

the superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure
the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

89

What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?

cervical - posterolateral
thoracic - posterior, slight lateral
lumbar - posterior

90

All lamina are oriented in what direction?

posterior and median

91

What is the name given to the overlap of laminae seen on x-ray?

shingling

92

What ligament will attach to the lamina?

the ligamentum flavum

93

What is the name given to abnormal bone at the attachment site of the ligamentum flavum?

para-articular process

94

What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?

accessory bone

95

What is the name given to the lamina-pedicle junction at each region of the spine?

cervical - articular pillar
thoracic and lumbar - pars interarticularis

96

What is the name given tot he junction of the vertebral arch - spinous process on lateral x-ray?

the spinolaminar junction

97

What is the name given to the tubular bone growth regions of the vertebral arch?

the apophyseal regions

98

What names may be given to each apophysis of the spine?

the transverse apophysis or transverse process; articular apophysis or articular process; spinous apophysis or spinous process

99

What is the generic orientation of the transverse process or transverse apophysis at each region of the spine?

cerivcal - anterolateral
thoracic - posterolateral
lumbar - lateral

100

All non-rib-bearing vertebra of the spine retain what equivalent feature?

the costal element

101

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the end of the transverse apophysis or transverse process?

the transverse tubercle

102

What will cause the trasnvserve process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the cervical region?

cervical spinal nerves are pulled forward and downward to form the cervical brachial plexuses thus remodeling the transverse process to accommodate their new position

103

What will cause the transverse process/transverse apophysis to alter its initial direction in the thoracic region?

the growth of the lungs remodel the shape of the ribs which in turn push the transverse processes backward

104

What will the articular process/articular apophysis support?

the articular facet

105

What is the name given to the joint formed between articular facets of a vertebral couple?

the zygapophysis

106

What is the name given to the bone surface at the front of a zygapophysis?

the superior artciular facet

107

What is the name given to the bone surface at the back of a zygapophysis?

the inferior artciular facet

108

What names are given tot he part of the vertebra which supports the front of the zygoapophysis?

the superior articular apophysis, the superior articular process, or the pre-zygapophysis

109

What names are given to the part of the vertebra which supports the back of the zygapophysis?

the inferior articular apophysis, the inferior articular process, or the post-zygapophysis

110

In the vertebral couple, the part of the vertebra which lies anterior to the zygapophysis is called the...

pre-zygapophysis

111

In the vertebral couple, the part of the vertebra which lies posterior to the zygapophysis is called the...

post-zygapophysis

112

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the pre-zygapophysis?

the superior articular process or superior articular apophysis

113

What is the name given to the part of the vertebra forming the post-zygapophysis?

the inferior articular process or inferior articular apophysis

114

What is the method of calculating the angle of the spinous process/spinous apophysis?

calculate the angle formed between the undersurface of the spinous process/spinous apophysis and the horizontal plane

115

What is the name given to the normal overlap of spinous processes or spinous apophyses as seen on x-ray?

imbrication

116

What is the name given to the rounded elevation at the tip of the spinous process/spinous apophysis?

the spinous tubercle

117

What is the orientation of the spinous process/spinous apophysis at each region of the spine?

cervical - slight angle inferiorly
thoracic - noticeable angle inferiorly
lumbar - no inferior angle

118

What will form the posterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

the inferior articular process/post-zyapophysis, the superior articular process/pre-zyapophysis, the capsular ligament, and the ligamentum flavum

119

What will form the superior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

the inferior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

120

What will form the inferior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

the superior vertebral notch or superior vertebral incisure

121

What will form the anterior boundary of a typical intervertebral foramen?

the vertebral body of the segment above, the vertebral body of the segment below, the intervertebral disc, and the posterior longitudinal ligament

122

What name is given to the opening located within the vertebral body - vertebral arch enclosure?

the vertebral foramen

123

The union of all vertebral foramina forms an apparent vertical cylinder called the...

the vertebral canal or spinal canal

124

What neural structures will occupy the vertebral foramen until the level of L2?

the spinal cord/spinal medulla/medulla spinalis, the proximal part of the perpipheral nerve system, and the meninges

125

What is the typical shape/outline of the vertebral foramen at each region of the spinal column/vertebral column?

cervical - triangular
thoracic - oval
lumbar - triangular
sacrum - triangular

126

At what vertebral level will the spinal cord typically terminate?

L1

127

At what vertebral level will the dural sac typically terminate?

L2

128

What are the segmental arteries?

the arteries whose branches supply the vertebra or segment

129

What segmental arteries arise from the subclavian arterye?

the vertebral, thyrocervical trunk, and costocervical trunk

130

Which of the segmental arteries will arise from the thryocervical trunk?

ascending cervical artery

131

Which of the segmental arteries will arise from the costocervical trunk?

deep cervical artery and superior (highest) intercostal artery

132

Which of the segmental arteries will arise from the thoracic descending aorta?

posterior intercostal artery and subcostal artery

133

Which of the segmental arteries will arise from the abdominal descending aorta?

lumbar artery and median (middle) sacral artery

134

Which of the segmental arteries will arise from the internal iliac artery?

the iliolumbar and lateral sacral arteries

135

Identify all segmental arteries of the vertebral column.

vertebral, ascending cervical, deep cervical, superior (highest) intercostal, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar, iliolumbar, lateral sacral and median (middle) sacral

136

What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?

the vertebral artery, ascending cervcial artery, and deep cervical artery

137

What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?

the deep cervical artery, superior (highest) intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery, and subcostal artery

138

What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine?

the lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median (middle) sacral artery

139

What are the segmental arteries of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

the iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median (middle) sacral artery

140

What are the segmental arteries of the sacrum?

the iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median (middle) sacral artery

141

What segmental levels are supplied by the vertebral artery?

C1-C6

142

What segmental levels are supplied by the ascending cervical artery?

C1-C6

143

What segmental levels are supplied by the deep cervical artery?

C7-T1

144

What segmental levels are supplied by the superior (highest) intercostal artery?

T1, T2

145

What segmental levels are supplied by the posterior intercostal artery?

T3-T11

146

What segmental level is supplied by the subcostal artery?

T12

147

What segmental levels are supplied by the lumbar arteries?

L1-L4

148

What segmental levels are supplied by the median (middle) sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5, and coccyx

149

What segmental levels are supplied by the iliolumbar artery?

L5, S1-S5, and coccyx

150

What segmental levels are supplied by the lateral sacral artery?

L5, S1-S5, and coccyx

151

Which vertebra has the greatest number of segmental arteries associated with it?

L5

152

What are the segmental arteries for L5?

iliolumbar artery, median (middle) sacral artery, and lateral sacral artery

153

What branch of the segmental artery supplies the vertebra and the paravertebral region?

dorsospinal artery

154

Which artery is primarily observed in the distal part of the intervertebral foramen?

spinal artery

155

Which branch of the dorsospinal artery will penetrate the meninges to enter subarachnoid space?

spinal artery

156

What are the branches of the spinal artery?

osseos arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery, anterior medullary feeder artery, posterior medually feeder artery, anterior radicular artery, posterior radicular artery

157

Which branches of the spinal artery supply the contents of the epidural space?

osseous arteries, anterior spinal canal artery, posterior spinal canal artery

158

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus

159

What arteries are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

posterior spinal canal artery and plexus

160

Which branches of the spinal artery suppl the contents of the subarachnoid space?

anterior radicular artery, posterior radicular artery, anterior medullary feeder artery, posterior medullary feeder artery

161

Which vessel will supply the ventral/anterior nerve rootlet and nerve root?

anterior radicular artery

162

Which vessel will supply the dorsal/posterior nerve rootlets, nerve root, and nerve root ganglion?

posterior radicular artery

163

Which artery is now said to enlarge and for the medullary feeder artery?

the radicular artery

164

What is the location and number of medullary feeder arteries present in the adult?

9 anterior and 12 posterior medullary feeder arteries

165

What is the name given to the artery that lies in front of the spinal cord along its length?

anterior spinal artery

166

The anterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

the vertebral artery

167

Is the anterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

no

168

As the anterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

anterior medullary feeeder arteries

169

The posterior spinal artery is a branch of which artery?

the posterior inferior cerebellar artery

170

What is the position of the posterior spinal artery relative to the spinal cord?

it lies in the posterolateral sulcus along the spinal cord

171

Is the posterior spinal artery a single, continuous artery along the spinal cord?

no

172

As the posterior spinal artery continues along the spinal cord, which arteries unite along its length to give the appearance of a single continuous vessel?

posterior medullary feeder arteries

173

What forms the arterial vasa corona?

anterior spinal arteries, posterior spinal arteries, and commuincating arteries

174

What is the generic name given to arteries that penetrate the spinal cord?

intramedullary arteries

175

What are the intramedullary branches of the arterial vasa corona?

pial perforating arteries and central/ventral/sulcal perforating arteries

176

What artery gives off the ventral/central/sulcal perforating arteries?

the anterior spinal artery

177

What arterial vasa corona branches supply gray matter and most of the spinal cord?

ventral/central/sulcal perforating arteries

178

What intramedullary branches supply about one third of the spinal cord?

pial perforating arteries

179

What is the source for pial perforating arteries?

the pial plexus

180

What arteries form the pial plexus?

the posterior spinal arteries and the communicating arteries

181

What arteries are responsible for supplementing the arterial vasa corona along the cord?

anterior medullary feeders and posterior medullary feeders

182

What vessels drain the spinal cord?

pial veins

183

What will pial veins drain into?

venous vasa corona

184

Which vessels form the venous vasa corona?

anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudiinal veins, and communicating veins

185

Which vessels will drain the venous vasa corona?

anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins

186

Which vessels will drain the ventral/anterior nerve roots?

anterior radicular veins

187

Which vessels will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve roots?

posterior radicular veins

188

What vessel will drain the dorsal/posterior nerve root ganglion?

posterior radicular veins

189

What veins will lie in the subarachnoid space?

pial veins, venous vasa corona, anterior longitudinal veins, posterior longitudinal veins, communicating veins, anterior medullary veins, posterior medullary veins, anterior radicular veins, posterior radicular veins

190

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the posterior longitudinal ligament?

anterior internal vertebral venous plexus, basivertebral vein

191

What lumenal feature of the anterior internal vertebral venous plexus vessels may function like valves of typical veins?

trabeculae

192

What veins are observed in the epidural space near the ligamentum flavum?

posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

193

What venous vessels are identified in the intervertebral foramen?

intervertebral veins

194

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal?

they lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins

195

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medulla spinalis).

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

196

Identify the meninges of the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medulla spinalis) and the commonly accepted meaning of each.

dura mater - tough mother
arachnoid mater - spider mother
pia mater - tender of delicate mother

197

Name and locate each space formed between the osseous vertebral foramen and the spinal cord (spinal medulla or medulla spinalis).

epidural space - between the vertebral foramen and the dura mater
subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space - between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater

198

What is the name given to the fluid within the epidural space?

interstitial fluid

199

What are the vascular contents of the epidural space?

anterior and posterior spinal canal artery and plexus
anteiror and posterior internal vertebral venous plexus
basivertebral vein

200

What are the neural contents of the epidural space?

recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve

201

What ligaments are associated with the epidural space?

Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments
ligamentum flavum
posterior longitudinal ligament

202

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
basivertebral vein

203

Which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral, sinus vertebral nerve

204

Which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the vertebral body?

posterior longtiduinal ligament and Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

205

Which of the blood vessels of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

posterior spinal canal artery and plexus
posterior internal vertebral venous plexus

206

Which of the nerves of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral, sinus vertebral nerve

207

Which of the ligaments of the epidural space will be found near the lamina?

ligamentum flavum and Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

208

Which meningeal space is now thought to be a potential space, not an actual space?

subdural space - between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater

209

Which of the contents of the epidural space are more likely located near or around the posterior longitudinal ligament?

anterior spinal canal artery and plexus
anterior internal vertebral venous plexus
basivertebral vein
recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve
Hofmann/anterior dural/meningovertebral ligaments

210

What is the name given to the fluid present within the subdural space?

serous fluid

211

What is the name given to the fluid with the subarachnoid space?

cerebrospinal fluid

212

What arteries may be present in the subarachnoid space down to the level of C3?

anterior spinal arteries
posterior spinal arteries
communicating arteries
arterial vasa corona
pial perforating arteries
central/sulcal perforating arteries
anterior radicular arteries
posterior radicular arteries
anterior medullary feeder arteries
posterior medullary feeder arteries

213

What veins may be present in the subarachnoid space down to the level of C3?

pial veins
anterior longitudinal vein
posterior longitudinal veins
communicating veins
venous vasa corona
anterior radicular veins
posterior radicular veins
anterior medullary veins
posterior medullary veins
intervertebral veins

214

What ligaments may be present in the subarachnoid space?

dentate/denticulate ligament

215

What contents of the subarachnoid space are changed below the level of C6?

the arterial vasa corona consists of 1 anterior spinal artery, 2 posterior spinal arteries, and 3 communicating arteries

216

What is the name given to the lateral extension of pia mater along the spinal cord?

dentate (denticulate) ligametn

217

What is the unique feature of veins along the spinal canal?

they lack the bicuspid valve of typical veins

218

In horizontal view, what direction of the spinal cord tends to be largest?

transverse

219

what are the spinal cord enlargement locations and the name given to each?

C3-T1, the cervical enlargement
T9-T12, the lumbar (lumbosacral) enlargement

220

Where is the greatest transverse diameter of the spinal cord?

C6

221

In which plane (or direction) will the diameter of the spinal cord decrease from C2 down to T1?

midsagittal or anterior-posterior plane

222

What spinal nerves originate from the lumbar (lumbosacral) enlargement?

L1-S3 spinal nerves

223

What is a generic cord level of origin - vertebral level combination for the lumbar (lumbosacral) enlargement?

L1, L2 cord levels in T9 vertebrae
L3, L4 cord levels in T10 vertebra
L5, S1 cord levels in T11 vertebra
S2, S3 cord levels in T12 vertebra

224

What is the caudal end of the spinal cord called?

conus medullaris

225

What spinal nerves originate from the conus medullaris?

typically S4, S5, and Co1

226

In which vertebral foramen will the conus medullaris typically be observed?

L1

227

What is the name given to the nerve roots below L1?

cauda equina

228

What is the continuation of pia mater below the conus medullaris called?

filum terminale internum

229

What is the location and name given to ht e area where all meninges first converge at the caudal part of the vertebral column?

typically S2, the dural cul de sac

230

Neural tissue has been identified in what part of the filum terminale?

proximal part of the filum terminale internum

231

What is the fate of the neural tissue identified along the filum terminale internum?

it joins peripheral nerve roots of psinal nerves as high as L3 and as low as S4

232

What does the neural tisssue associated with the filum terminale externum appear to innervate?

lower limbs and the external anal sphincter

233

The last arterial vasa corona creates what feature on angiogram?

cruciate anastomosis

234

What is the name given to the condensation of meninges below S2?

filum terminale externum

235

What is the name given to the caudal attachment of the meninges?

coccygeal medullary vestige

236

What is the name given to the condition in which the conus medullaris is located below L1 and the filum terminale is thickened?

tethered cord syndrome

237

What is the relationship between scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome?

it is suggested that the column will change normal curvatures to mitigate damage to the spinal cord caused by a tethered cord

238

At the intervertebral foramen, what is the relationship between spinal nerve number and vertebral number along the cervical spine?

in the cervical spine, spinal nerves exit above the segment they are number after (C8 nerve is the exception to this rule)
ex. C3 nerve exits above C3 or between C2/C3

239

At the intervertebral foramen, what is the relationship between spinal nerve number and vertebral number along the thoracic and lumbar spine and the sacrum?

in the thoracic and lumbar spine and for the sacrum, spinal nerves exit below the segment they are numbered after (Co1 nerve is the exception to this rule)
ex. T6 nerve exits below T6 or between T6/T7

240

What is the relationship between rib number and vertebral number at the costocentral joint?

rib number always equates to same vertebral number at costocentral joint
ex. rib 3 articulates with T3 segment and also with the T2 segment
(only ribs 1, 11, and 12 typicaaly joint with a single segment

241

What is the relationship between spinal nerve number, rib number and vertebral number in a thoracic intervertebral foramen?

the spinal nerve number relates to the tupper segment number in the vertebral couple
the rib number relates to the lower segment number in the vertebral couple
ex. T3 nerve exits the intervertebral foramen formed by T3/T4 and rib 4 joints with this vertebral couple