X. Myology of the Back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in X. Myology of the Back Deck (267):
1

What muscles are associated with the five muscle layers of the true back?

layer one consists of the trapezius and latissimus dorsi
layer two consists of the rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and levator scapulae
layer three consists of the serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior
layer four consists of the erector spinae
layer five consists of the transversospinalis

2

Which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer one of the true back?

trapezius, latissimus dorsi

3

Which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer two of the true back?

rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

4

Which muscles attaching to transverse processes represent layer two of the true back?

levator scapulae

5

Which of the muscles attaching to the scapula represent layer one of the true back?

trapezius

6

Which of the muscles attaching to the scapula represent layer two of the true back?

levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

7

Which of the muscles attaching to the humerus represent layer one of the true back?

latissimus dorsi

8

Which muscles attaching to the lateral mass of C1 represent layer two of the true back?

levator scapulae

9

Which of the muscles in layer one of the true back acts to extend and laterally flex the head and neck and bilaterally acts to extend the neck?

trapezius

10

Which of the muscles in layer two of the true back acts to laterally flex and rotate the neck and bilaterally acts to extend the neck?

levator scapulae

11

Which of the muscles in layer one of the true back acts solely on the humerus?

latissimus dorsi

12

Which of the muscles in layer two of the true back acts solely on the scapula?

rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

13

Which of the muscles of the true back is innervated by the spinal accessory nerve?

trapezius

14

The trapezius is innervated by what nerve?

the spinal accessory nerve

15

What forms the spinal accessory nerve innervating the trapezius?

C1-C5 cord levels contribute to the spinal root of the spinal accessory nerve

16

Which of the muscles of the true back is innervated by the thoracodorsal nerve?

latissimus dorsi

17

The latissimus dorsi is innervated by what nerve?

the thoracodorsal nerve

18

What forms the thoracodorsal nerve innervating the latissimus dorsi?

ventral rami from C6-C8

19

Which of the muscles of the true back are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve?

levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

20

What forms the dorsal scapular nerve?

the ventral ramus of C5

21

The levator scapulae is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C3, C4, ventral rami

22

The rhomboid major is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C4 ventral ramus

23

The rhomboid minor is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C4 ventral ramus

24

What muscles lie just beneath the trapezius in the neck?

splenius capitis and splenius cervicis

25

What does the word "splenius" mean?

it is the Greek word for bandage

26

What part of the vertebra forms the osseous origin for the splenius muscles?

the spinous process

27

Splenius capitis will attach to what locations on the skull?

mastoid process of temporal bone, superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

28

Contraction of splenius capitis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion of head, rotation of face to the side; bilaterally they extend the head

29

What is the innervation of the splenius capitis?

dorsal rami of middle cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5 cord levels)

30

Splenius cervicis will attach to what locations on the spine?

lateral mass of C1 and posterior tubercle of transverse process on C1-C4

31

Contraction of splenius cervicis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of neck; bilaterally they extend the neck

32

What is the innervation of the splenius cervicis?

dorsal rami of lower cervical spinal nerves (C5-C7 cord levels)

33

Which muscles represent the fourth layer of the true back?

the erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles

34

Which muscles are identified as erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles?

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

35

What muscles are classically identified as iliocostalis muscles?

iliocostalis lumborum, iliocostalis thoracis, and iliocostalis cervicis

36

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum?

spinous processes of T11-T12, L1-L5, median sacral crest, lateral sacral crest

37

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum?

costal angles of the lower 6-9 ribs (rib 6 - rib 12 or rib 3 - rib 12)

38

Contraction of iliocostalis lumborum will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion and rotation of lumbar spine; lateral pelvic movement

39

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis lumborum?

dorsal rami of lower thoracic and all lumbar spinal nerves

40

What muscles are identified as subdivisions within the iliocostalis muscles?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum and iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis

41

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum?

spinous processes of L1-L5

42

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum?

iliac crest of the innominate bone

43

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum paras thoracis?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and iliac crest of the innominate bone

44

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis?

costal angles of the lower 8-9 ribs (rib 3 or 4 - rib 12)

45

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

46

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis thoracis?

none

47

What is the origin for the iliocostalis thoracis?

costal angles of the lower 6-7 ribs (rib 5 or 6 - rib 12)

48

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis?

costal angles of the upper 6-7 ribs, transverse process of C7

49

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serves as an insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis?

transverse process of C7

50

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates and inserts on ribs?

iliocostalis thoracis

51

Contraction of iliocostalis thoracis will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion of the thoracic spine

52

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of upper 6 thoracic spinal nerves (T1-T6 cord levels)

53

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis cervicis?

none

54

What is the origin for the iliocostalis cervicis?

costal angles of the upper 3-6 ribs (ribs 1-3 or ribs 1-6)

55

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis cervicis?

posterior tubercle of transverse process of C(3) C4-C6

56

Contraction of iliocostalis cervicis will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the lower cervical spine

57

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of T1, T2 spinal nerves, sometimes C8 spinal nerve (C8, T1, T2 cord levels)

58

What muscles are classically identified as longissimus muscles?

longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, and longissimus capitis

59

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis?

accessory process and transverse processes of L1-L5, spinous processes of L3-L5 and median sacral crest S1-S3

60

What non-vertebral column site serves as an origin to the longissimus thoracis?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) of the innominate bone

61

What is the insertion for the longissimus thoracis?

transverse tubercle of all thoracic segments
between tubercle and costal angle of the lower 9-10 ribs (rib 2 or 3 - rib 12)

62

Which erector spinae muscle is attached to the accessory process?

longissimus thoracis

63

Contraction of longissimus thoracis will result in what movements of the vertebral column?

lateral flexion of the thoracic spine (lumbar spine inadvertently)
bilaterally acts to extend the thoracic and lumbar spine, holds thoracic and lumbar spine erect
increases the lumbar lordotic curve
lateral pelvic movement

64

What is the innervation of the longissimus thoracis?

dorsal rami of all thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves (cord levels T1-T12, L1-L5)

65

What muscles are identified as subdivisions within the longissimus thoracis muscles?

longissimus thoracis pars lumborum and longissimus thoracis pars thoracis

66

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum?

accessory process and medial part of transverse process of L1-L5

67

What is the insertion for the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) of the innominate bone

68

Contraction of longissimus thoracis pars lumborum will result in what movements?

lateral flexion of lumbar spine
bilaterally extend lumbar spine and increase lumbar lordotic curve

69

What osseous parts of the vertebral column site serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis pars thoracis?

spinous processes of L3-L5 and median sacral crest S1-S3

70

What non-vertebral column site serves as an origin to the longissimus thoracis pars thoracis?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) of the innominate bone

71

What is the insertion for the longissimus thoracis pars thoracis?

transverse process of all thoracis
between tubercle and costal angle of all ribs (rib 1 - rib 12)

72

Contraction of longissimus thoracis pars thoracis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion of thoracic spine (lumbar spine inadvertently)
bilaterally extend thoracic spine (lumbar spine inadvertently)

73

Which subdivision of the longissimus muscle appears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?

longissimus thoracis pars lumborum

74

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus cervicis?

transverse tubercles of T1-T5 or T6

75

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an insertion for the longissimus cervicis?

posterior tubercle of transverse processes from C2-C6 or C7
articular processes from C2-C6 or C7

76

Contraction of longissimus cervicis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion of the neck, bilaterally act to extend neck

77

What is the innervation of the longissimus cervicis?

dorsal rami of C4-C8 and T1-T12 spinal nerves (C4-C8 and T1-T12 cord levels)

78

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus capitis?

transverse tubercle of T1-T5 and articular processes of C4-C7

79

What is the insertion for the longissimus capitis?

mastoid process of temporal bone

80

Contraction of longissimus capitis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of the head, bilaterally act to extend head

81

What is the innervation of the longissimus capitis?

dorsal rami of C1-C3 or C4 spinal nerves, (C1-C3 or C4 cord levels)

82

Which erector spinae muscles attach to cervical articular processes?

longissimus cervicis and longissimus capitis

83

What muscles are classically identified as spinalis muscles?

spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, and spinalis capitis

84

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the spinalis thoracis?

spinous processes of T11 and T12 -L1 and L2

85

What is the insertion for the spinalis thoracis?

spinous process of T1-T4 or as low as T8

86

Contraction of spinalis thoracis will result in what movements of the vertebral column?

extension of the thoracic spine

87

What is the innervation of the spinalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of all thoracic and upper lumbar spinal nerves

88

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the spinalis cervicis?

spinous process of C7 and T1-T6

89

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an insertion for the spinalis cervicis?

spinous process from C2-C4

90

Contraction of spinalis cervicis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of the cervical spine, bilaterally act to extend the neck

91

What is the innervation of the spinalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of all cervical spinal nerves (C1-C8 cord levels)

92

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the spinalis capitis?

spinous process of C7 and T1-T6 or T7

93

What is the insertion for the spinalis capitis?

below the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

94

Contraction of spinalis capitis will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of the head, bilaterally act to extend head

95

What is the innervation of the spinalis capitis?

dorsal rami of lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves

96

Which muscles are identified as transversospinalis muscles?

semispinalis, multifidus, and rotators

97

Transversospinalis muscles represent what layer of the true back?

layer five

98

Based on the name of this group, what is the origin - insertion of the transversospinalis?

transverse process origin, spinous process insertion

99

How many vertebrae can be attached to a single segment by transversospinalis muscles?

as many as nine vertebrae

100

What muscles are classically identified as semispinalis muscles?

semispinalis thoracis, semispinalis cervicis, and semispinalis capitis

101

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis thoracis?

transverse tubercles of T6-T10 or as low as T12

102

What segment will represent the lowest attachement site for the semispinalis thoracis?

T12

103

What is the insertion for the semispinalis thoracis?

spinous processes of C6-C7 and T1-T4

104

Contraction of semispinalis thoracis will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion and rotation of upper thoracic and lower cervical spine, bilaterally they act to extend the thoracic spine

105

What is the innervation of the semispinalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of T1-T6 spinal nerves (cord levels T1-T6)

106

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis cervicis?

transverse tubercles of T1-T5 or T6 and articular processes of C4-C7

107

What is the insertion for the semispinalis cervicis?

spinous processes of C2-C5

108

Contraction of semispinalis cervicis will result in what movements?

extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the cervical spine, bilaterally they act to extend the neck

109

What is the innervation of the semispinalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of C6-C8 spinal nerves (cord levels C6-C8)

110

What osseous parts of of the vertebral column serves as an origin to the semispinalis capitis?

transverse tubercles of C7, T1-T6 or T7 and articular processes of C4-C6

111

What is the insertion of the semispinalis capitis?

below the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

112

Contraction of semispinalis capitis will result in what movements?

turns the face to the ipsilateral side of rotation, bilaterally they act to extend the head (the neck inadvertently)

113

What is the innervation of the semispinalis capitis?

dorsal rami of C1- C6 spinal nerves (cord levels C1-C6)

114

The semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis may fuse to form what muscle?

biventer cervicis

115

The bivneter cervicis is formed by the fusion of what muscles?

semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis

116

Which muscle(s) is representative of muscle layer one in the neck?

trapezius

117

Which muscle(s) is representative of muscle layer two inthe neck?

splenius cervicis, splenius capitis

118

Which muscle(s) is representative of muscle layer three in the neck?

semispinalis capitis, spinalis capitis

119

What regional subdivisions are now identified with multifidus muscles?

lumbar multifidus, thoracic multifidus, and cervical multifidus

120

What Latin names can be given to the parts of the multifidus muscle?

multifidus lumborum, multifidus thoracis, and multifidus cervicis

121

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the classic multifidus?

articular process of C4-C7, transverse processes of T1-T12, mammillary processes of L1-L5 and the dorsal surface of S1-S4 or S5

122

What non-vertebral column site serves as an origin to the classic multifidus?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) of the innominate bone

123

What is the insertion for the classic multifidus?

spinous process 3-5 segments above the origin

124

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine?

multifidus

125

Contraction of the classic multifidus will result in what movements of the vertebral column?

lateral flexion and rotation of the spine, maintains the lumbar lordotic curve and prevents entrapment of zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement

126

What is the innervation of the classic multifidus?

dorsal rami of C3-C8, T1-T12, L1-L5 and S1 spinal nerves (cord levels C3-C8, T1-T12, L1-L5 and S1)

127

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the multifidus cervicis?

articular process of C4-C7

128

What is the attachment site and most cranial vertebra of insertion for the multifidus?

spinous process of C2

129

Contraction of multifidus cervicis will result in what movements?

alters the zygapophyseal capsular ligament response to load distribution determines the cervical spine response to injury as evidenced by neck pain and is a significant contributor to postural control of the head and neck

130

What osseous parts of the vertebral column site serve as an origin to the multifidus lumborum?

spinous processes of L1-L5

131

What is the insertion for the multifidus lumborum?

mammillary process and zygapophyseal capsular ligaments and the dorsal surface of S1-S4 or S5

132

Which subdivision of multifidus may demonstrate a reversal of origin - insertion?

multifidus lumborum

133

Contraction of multifidus lumborum will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of the lumbar spine, maintains the lumbar lordotic curve and prevents entrapment of lumbar zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement

134

The thoracic rotators are replaced in the lumbar spine by what muscles?

deep laminar fibers of the multifidus

135

What is characteristic of multifidus innervation?

all fascicles attaching to a specific spinous process are innervated by the nerve of that segment...(the L2 spinal nerve terminates on fascicles attaching to the L2 spinous process)

136

Which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin - insertion combination?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum and multifidus lumborum

137

Rotator muscles are typically identified in what region of the spine?

the thoracic region

138

What will replace muscles spanning one or two segmental levels in the cervicals and lumbars?

deep layers of the multifidus

139

What is the classic origin of rotator brevis or its homolog?

transverse processes from C3 and each lower vertebra to the dorsal surface of sacrum (C3-C7, T1-T12, L1-L5, sacrum)

140

What is the classic insertion of rotator brevis or its homolog?

spinous process one segmental level above, from C2-C7, T1-T12, L1-L5

141

Where does the rotator brevis originating at C3 insert?

the spinous process of C2

142

What muscle connects a transverse process to the spinous process of the segment above?

rotator brevis

143

Contraction of rotator brevis will result in what movements?

rotation of the segment of insertion, bilaterally acts to weakly extend spine

144

What is the classic origin of rotator longus or its homolog?

transverse processes from C4 and each lower vertebra to the dorsal surface of sacrum

145

What is the classic insertion of rotator longus or its homolog?

spinous process two segmental levels above, from C2-C7, T1-T12, L1-L5

146

Where does the rotator longus originating at C4 insert?

the spinous process of C2

147

What muscle connects a transverse process to the spinous process two segments above?

rotator longus

148

Contraction of rotator longus will result in what movements?

rotation of the segment of insertion, bilaterally acts to weakly extend spine

149

What innervates the rotators?

dorsal rami at the level of insertion are believed to do so

150

What innervates the rotator brevis attaching to C2?

the dorsal ramus of C2 is believed to do so

151

What innervates the rotator longus attaching to C2?

the dorsal ramus of C2 is believed to do so

152

What muscles are included in the suboccipital muscle group?

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis inferior, and obliquus capitis superior

153

Which suboccipital muscle lacks an attachment to the skull?

obliquus capitis inferior

154

Which nerve will innervate all suboccipital muscles?

the dorsal ramus of C1, the suboccipital nerve

155

What is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior major?

the spinous tubercle of C2

156

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

inferior nuchal line laterally

157

Contraction of rectus capitis posterior major will result in what movements?

turns the face to the side, bilaterally acts to extend the head

158

What is the origin of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1

159

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis posterior minor?

inferior nuchal line medially

160

Contraction of rectus capitis posterior minor will result in what movement?

extends the head

161

What is the origin of the obliquus capitis inferior?

C2 spinous process and lamina

162

What is the insertion of the obliquus capitis inferior?

transverse process of C1

163

Contraction of obliquus capitis inferior will result in what movement?

turns the face to the side

164

What is the origin of the obliquus capitis superior?

the posteiror tubercle of the transverse process of C1

165

What is the insertion of the obliquus capitis superior?

between superior nuchal line and inferior nuchal line

166

Contraction of obliquus capitis supeiror will result in what movements?

lateral flexion/lateral bending of the head, bilaterally acts to the extend the head

167

An increase in the density of muscle spindles is most apparent in which suboccipital muscle?

obliquus capitis inferior

168

Suboccipital muscle feedback relays to what additional locations in the brain?

extraocular nuclei of origin, primary visual cortex and vesticular nuclei

169

What is the result of communication between suboccipital muscles, visual centers and vestibular centers?

coordination of head and eye position

170

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?

postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

171

Which suboccipital muscles are known to attach to dura mater?

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor and obliquus capitis inferior

172

At what segmental levels of the spine will the interspinalis muscle be present?

C2-C7, T1-T3 and T11-T12, L1-L4 or L5

173

Interspinalis is paired in which regions of the spine?

cervical and lumbar regions

174

At what locations will interspinalis be absent along the spine?

T3-T4 down to T10-T11

175

What are the attachment sites for the interspinalis muscle?

spinous tubercle and spinous process of adjacent vertebrae

176

Contraction of interspinalis is traditionally said to result in what movement?

weak approximation of the spinous processes or extension of the spine

177

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertransversarii to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

178

Intertransversarii are paired in which region(s) of the spine?

cervical and lumbar regions

179

Intertransversarii are unpaired in which region(s) of the spine?

thoracic region

180

In which region of the spine are intertransversarii best developed?

cervical region

181

What are the names of the parts of the intertransversarii in the cervical spine?

anterior belly, posterior lateral belly, posterior medial belly

182

What is the origin of the anterior belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

posterior tubercle of transverse process C1, C2
anterior tubercle of transverse process C3-C7

183

What is the insertion of the anterior belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

posterior tubercle of transverse process C2
anterior tubercle of transverse process of C3-C7 and transverse tubercle T1

184

What is the origin of the posterior lateral belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

lateral aspect and posterior tubercle of the true transverse process C1-C7

185

What is the insertion of the posterior lateral belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

lateral aspect and posterior tubercle of the true transverse process C2-C7 and transverse tubercle T1

186

What is the origin of the posterior medial belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

medial aspect of the true transverse process C1-C7

187

What is the insertion of the posterior medial belly of the cervical intertransversarii?

medial aspect of the true transverse process C2-C7 and medial aspect of transverse process T1

188

What is the innervation of each part of the cervical intertransversarii?

anterior belly, cervical intertransversarii... ventral ramus, cervical spinal nerve posterior lateral belly, cervical intertransversarii... ventral ramus, cervical spinal nerve
posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii... dorsal ramus, cervical spinal nerve

189

Which of the cervical intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves?

posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii

190

What are the attachment sites for the thoracic intertransversarii?

transverse tubercle of lower thoracics only and transverse tubercle of adjacent vertebra

191

What are the names of the parts of the intertransversarri

medial belly, anterior lateral belly, posterior lateral belly

192

What is the origin of the medial belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

accessory process of transverse process L1-L4
mammillary process of superior articular process L1-L4

193

What is the insertion of the medial belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

mammillary process of superior articular process the segment below (L2-L5)

194

What is the origin of the anterior lateral belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

transverse tubercle and transverse process of L1-L5

195

What is the insertion of the anterior lateral belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

transverse tubercle and transverse process of the adjacent segment

196

What is the origin of the posterior lateral belly of the lumbar interstransversarii?

accessory process of the transverse process L1-L4

197

What is the insertion of the posterior lateral belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

transverse process of the segment below (L2-L5)

198

What is the innervation of each part of the lumbar intertransversarii?

medial belly, lumbar intertransversarii... dorsal ramus, lumbar spinal nerve
anterior belly, lumbar intertransversarii.... ventral ramus, lumbar spinal nerve
posterior belly, lumbar intertransversarii... ventral ramus, lumbar spinal nerve

199

Which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves?

medial belly, lumbar intertransversarii

200

Which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by ventral rami of lumbar spinal nerves?

anterior lateral belly and posterior lateral belly, lumbar intertransversarii

201

Which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal rami and ventral rami of spinal nerves?

intertransversarii

202

Contraction of intertransversarii is traditionally said to result in what movement?

weak approximation of transverse processes or lateral flexion (bending) of the spine

203

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of intertransversarii?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

204

What is the origin of the longus colli?

vertebral bodies of C5-C7, T1-T3 and anteriro tubercles of transverse processes C3-C5

205

What is the insertion of the longus colli?

anterior tubercle of the anterior arch of C1, vertebral bodies of C2-C4, and anterior tubercles of transverse processes C5-C6

206

Contraction of longus colli will result in what movements?

flexion and lateral flexion (bending) of the neck and rotation to the contralateral side

207

What will innervate the longus colli?

ventral rami of C2-C6 or C7 spinal nerves

208

What is the origin of the longus capitis?

anterior tubercles of transverse processes C3-C6

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What is the insertion of the longus capitis?

basilar part of the occipital bone

210

Contraction of longus capitis will result in what movements?

flex the head

211

What will innervate the longus capitis?

the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves

212

What is the origin of the rectus capitis anterior?

lateral mass and costal element of the transverse process of C1

213

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis anterior?

basilar part of the occipital bone

214

Contraction of rectus capitis anterior will result in what movements?

flex the head

215

What will innervate the rectus capitis anterior?

ventral rami of C1-C2 spinal nerves

216

What is the origin of the rectus capitis lateralis?

costal element of the transverse process of C1

217

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis lateralis?

jugular process of the occipital bone

218

Contraction of rectus capitis lateralis will result in what movements?

laterally flex the head to the ipsilateral side

219

What will innervate the rectus capitis lateralis?

the ventral rami of C1-C2 spinal nerves

220

What is the origin of the anterior scalene?

anterior tubercles of transverse processes of C3-C6

221

What is the insertion of the anterior scalene?

ridge and anterior scalene tubercle of the first rib

222

Contraction of anterior scalene will result in what movements?

flexion and lateral flexion (bending) of the neck and rotation of cervicals to the contralateral side; elevates the first rib

223

What will innervate the anterior scalene?

the ventral rami of C2-C6 spinal nerves

224

What is the origin of the middle scalene?

trasnverse processes of C1, C2 and posterior tubercles of transverse processes C3-C7

225

What is the insertion of the middle scalene?

between the tubercle and groove for the subclavian artery on the first rib

226

Contraction of middle scalene will result in what movements?

laterally flex the neck; elevate the first rib

227

What will innervate the middle scalene?

the ventral rami of C3-C8 spinal nerves

228

What is the origin of the posterior scalene?

posterior tubercles of transverse processes C4-C6

229

What is the insertion of the posterior scalene?

outer surface of second rib

230

Contraction of posterior scalene will result in what movements?

laterally flex the neck; elevates the second rib

231

What will innervate the posterior scalene?

the ventral rami of C6-C8 spinal nerves

232

Which muscle is said to form the iliolumbar ligament?

quadratus lumborum

233

The quadratus lumborum is implicated in the formation of which ligament?

the iliolumbar ligament

234

What osseous part of the vertebral column serves as an origin to the quadratus lumborum?

transverse process of L5

235

What non-vertebral column site serves as an origin to the quadratus lumborum?

iliac crest of the innominate bone

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What is the insertion of the quadratus lumborum?

transverse tubercle of the transverse process L1-L4 and 12th rib

237

Contraction of quadratus lumborum will result in what movements?

steadies the origin of the diaphragm
when pelvis is fixed, it will laterally flex the lumbar spine
bilaterally acts to extend the lumbar spine
stabilizes and depresses the 12th rib

238

What will innervate the quadratus lumborum?

the ventral rami of T12 and L1-L3 or L4 spinal nerves

239

What is the origin of the psoas major?

vertebral bodies T12, L1-L5, S1 and transverse processes of L1-L5

240

What is the insertion of the psoas major?

lesser trochanter of the femur

241

Contraction of psoas major will result in what movements?

flex the thigh at the hip when the spine is stabilized
flex trunk and tilt pelvis forward when thigh is stabilized
important in raising body from supine to sitting positions

242

What will innervate the psoas major?

primarily the ventral rami of L2 and L3, may include ventral rami of L1 and L4 spinal nerves

243

What is the origin of the psoas minor?

vertebral bodies T12, L1

244

What is the insertion of the psoas minor?

iliopubic eminence of the innominate bone

245

Contraction of psoas minor will result in what movements?

weakly flexes trunk

246

What will innervate the psoas minor?

the ventral ramus of L1 spinal nerve

247

What osseous part of the vertebral column serves as an origin to the iliacus?

superolateral margin of sacrum

248

What non-vertebral column site serves as an origin to the iliacus?

iliac crest and upper two-thirds of the iliac fossa of the innominate bone

249

What is the insertion of the iliacus?

lesser trochanter of the femur

250

Contraction of iliacus will result in what movements?

flex the thigh at the hip when the spine is stabilized
flex the trunk and tilt pelvis forward when thigh is stabilized
important in raising body from supine to sitting positions

251

What will innervate the iliacus?

the femoral nerve, primarily the ventral rami of L2 and L3

252

What is the origin of the levator costarum brevis?

transverse tubercles of transverse processes from C7, T1-T11

253

What is the insertion of the levator costarum brevis?

between the costal tubercle and costal angle of the rib below

254

Contraction of levator costarum brevis will result in what movements?

elevate the rib, collectively may laterally flex and rotate trunk

255

What will innervate the levator costarum brevis?

the dorsal rami of T1-T12 spinal nerves

256

What is the origin of the levator costarum longus?

transverse tubercles of transverse processes from T7-T10

257

What is the insertion of the levator costarum longus?

near costal angle of rib 9 - rib 12

258

Contraction of levator costarum longus will result in what movements?

elevate the rib, collectively may laterally flex and rotate trunk

259

What will innervate the levator costarum longus?

the dorsal rami of the lower thoracic spinal nerves

260

What is the origin of the serratus posterior superior?

spinous tubercles of spinous processes from C7, T1 and T2, possibly T3

261

What is the insertion of the serratus posterior superior?

upper outer border of rib 2- rib 5

262

Contraction of serratus posterior superior will result in what movements?

elevate the upper outer border of rib 1 - rib 5 in inspiration

263

What will innervate the serratus posterior superior?

the ventral rami of T2-T5 spinal nerves...intercostal nerves

264

What is the origin of the serratus posterior inferior?

spinous tubercles of spinous processes from T11, T12, L1 and L2, possibly L3

265

What is the insertion of the serratus posterior inferior?

inferior outer border of ribs 9-12

266

Contraction of serratus posterior inferior will result in what movements?

draws lower 4 ribs down and back, forced inspiration

267

What will innervate the serratus posterior inferior?

the ventral rami of T9-T11, the intercostal nerves and the ventral ramus of T12, the subcostal nerve