Internal Fixation of Spine Updated Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Internal Fixation of Spine Updated Deck (91):
1

What are the three main functions of the Spine?

Motion
Weight Transfer
Protection of Neural Elements

2

In the cervical spine, the facets are oriented in the ____ plane

Axial

3

Being oriented in the axial plane allows the cervical spine to ____, lateral bend, _____, and _______

Rotate, lateral bend, flexion, and extension

4

In the thoracic spine the facets are oriented in the ____ plane

Frontal

5

In the lumbar spine, the facets are oriented in the _____ plane

Sagittal

6

Since the facets are in the sagittal plane, the lumbar spine can achieve ____ and ____ with some lateral bending but minimal ________

Flexion, extension, rotation

7

In a healthy spine, __% of compressive loads are transferred through the anterior column (VBs and discs)

80%

8

Define decompression

The removal of any material causing undue pressure on the neural elements

9

Define direct decompression

Physically removing the tissue that is exerting pressure onto a neural element

10

Define indirect decompression

Involves increasing the space for the neural structures by increasing or restoring the height of the disc space

11

Define restoration of stability

The application of stabilizing implants to provide immediate mechanical stability and preserve neurological function, while allowing the patient to have an early return to function

12

Define arthrodesis

The body's own bony fusion which will provide long-term stability to the spine

13

What are the 5 steps for plate and screw constructs

1. Size the plate
2. Position and provisionally stabilize the plate
3. Create a pathway for the screws
4. Insert the screws
5. Performing final tightening

14

What are two methods used to size a plate

Calipers, templates

15

What are two key instruments used in positioning and provisionally stabilizing a plate

Plate holding forceps, temporary fixation pins (ideally place in diagonal plate holes)

16

What are two main techniques for creating a screw pathway when plating?

Drill (requires both a drill and drill guide, a tap may also be necessary to cut path for thread depending on type of screw)

Awl which ensures starting point of screw is in center of the plate hole by creating an opening in cortical bone

17

When inserting a screw in a plate, what instrument is used?

A screwdriver with or without a holding sleeve depending on type of screw

18

What order should screw be inserted in a plate?

Alternating pattern to prevent tilting or lift off

19

What is an instrument that is occasionally used for final tightening a plate?

Torque limiting driver

20

What are the 4 steps for implanting a screw and rod construct?

1. Create a pathway
2. Insert the screw
3. Connect the screw to a rod
4. Perform final tightening

21

What are the 6 steps for an interbody fusion?

1. Access the disc
2. Remove the disc
3. Create an osteogenic environment
4. Trial
5. Prepare spacer
6. Implantation

22

What is used to scrape disc material from the bone?

Curette

23

Which allograft type should be thawed before implantation?

Frozen allograft

24

Which allograft type should be rehydrated in saline prior to implantation?

Freeze dried

25

What can happen if you don't thaw or rehydrate an allograft?

Fracture

26

What are the 3 functions of a screw head?

1. Acts as stop to prevent screw from traveling entirely through bone
2. Holds or lags a plate securely against bone
3. Contains drive mechanism that engages with screwdriver

27

What is the function of the screw shaft?

When inserted into bone, threads prevent the screw from pulling out

28

What are the two functions of the screw tip?

1. Can cut pathway for screw
2. Guides the screw into bone

29

What are the two main functions of a screw thread?

1. Upon rotation, they exert force to insert a screw into bone
2. They increase the force required to remove a screw from the bone

30

The measurement of the force that is required to pull a screw from the material in which it is embedded

Pullout strength

31

What are the two main factors that influence screw pullout strength?

1. Quality of bone
2. Thread design (more thread = better pullout strength)

32

The vertical distance between threads

Pitch

33

What two things does pitch affect?

1. Speed of insertion
2. Pullout strength

34

The distance the screw travels through the bone per 360 degree rotation

Pitch

35

Screws with a ______ pitch have more thread revolutions than the same length screw with a _______ pitch

Smaller pitch has more threads than greater pitch

36

The width of the shaft including the threads

Major diameter

37

The width of the shaft EXCLUDING the threads

Minor diameter

38

Describe the thread design on a cortical screw

The threads on a cortical screw are short and flat to exert forces outward and increase compressive force between the screw and the bone

39

The goal for achieving purchase in _______ bone is to create compressive forces between the screw and bone

Cortical

40

The goal for achieving purchase in ________ bone is to maximize the surface area of the screw in contact with the bone

Cancellous

41

A cortical screw's minor diameter is slightly ______ than the hole prepared for it

Larger

42

A cancellous screw's minor diameter is the _____ diameter as the minor diameter of the screw

Same size - a large core would simply push the cancellous bone away rather than creating compressive force

43

The threads on a cancellous screw are _______ and _______

Larger, sharp

44

These screws incorporate both cortical and cancellous screw attributes in the same screw (constant major diameter while minor transitions from wider at head to narrower at tip)

Dual core

45

This screw has two threads traveling down the shaft of the screw simultaneously

Dual lead

46

A dual lead screw yields twice the insertion speed of a single lead without sacrificing what?

Pullout strength

47

Partially threaded screws have two main advantages

Ability to lag
Tissue protection

48

A type of screw used to pull two pieces of bone together

Lag screw

49

In a lag screw, the unthreaded portion is near the _____. As the threaded portion engages the distant fragment and advances, the threads of the screw pull the distant fragment toward the near fragment and the gap descreases

Head

50

What prevents lagging in a plate construct?

Threads at plate to screw interface

51

A standard screw has a tip that requires ______ a pilot hole for the screw and then ________ the hole before inserting the screw

Drilling, tapping

52

A self-tapping screw has a tip that requires ______ or _______ to insert the screw but not tapping

Drilling or probing

53

What are the two different self-tapping screw designs?

One design uses a flute cut into the tip of the screw to begin cutting the thread pattern

In another design the thread continues to the tip of the screw as the core tapers allowing the threads to bite in and begin to cut without a flute

54

A self-drilling screw has a tip that can be inserted directly into the bone without ____ or _____

Drilling or tapping

55

A self-drilling screw will always follow what?

The path of least resistance

56

Self-drilling screws have what type of tip?

A sharp, pointy tip

57

If trajectory or screw angle is important, what must be prepared for a self-drilling screw?

A hole using an awl

58

If a construct is too rigid, or ____ _____ it will bear all of the load and shield the fusion site from feeling force

Load bearing

59

When a construct shields the fusion site from feeling force, this is known as what?

Stress shielding

60

Allowing the fusion site to feel load but protecting it from damaging forces

Load sharing

61

Define modulus of elasticity

A measure of the stiffness of a material or how much the material flexes when a force is applied

62

What is the ideal material for a spinal implant?

One in which the modulus of elasticity is close to that of bone so that the construct approximates a natural state for the body

63

The stiffer a material is, the more likely it is to be load _____

Bearing

64

What are the two ways that a screw remains locked to a plate?

Locking screw rigidly connected to plate
Blocking screw prevented from backing out of plate by secondary blocking mechanism

65

A ________ screw is rigidly connected to a plate and the two implants interlock to prevent any movement at the screw-to-plate interface (maximizes pullout strength)

Locking

66

________ and _______ screws provide greater resistance to pullout

Convergent and divergent

67

Why do convergent and divergent screws provide greater resistance to pullout?

All of the bone tissue between the screws and plate must be overcome

68

What are the three different thread profiles commonly found in locking caps

V-Thread
Buttress Thread
Square Thread

69

A V-shape is not ideal for locking caps for what two reasons?

Easy crossthreading
Tend to exert force both outward in addition to downward

70

What does a buttress thread prevent?

The right triangle threads prevent the thread from exerting outward force that could splay the screwhead

71

What does a square thread provide more resistance to?

Cross-threading - they lack the sharp points that can cut into the opposing implant's metal and are more likely to follow machined path

72

What is more likely to exert outward force and cause splay, square or buttress thread?

Buttress thread

73

What are three key considerations when selecting implant materials?

Elasticity
Effect on post-operative imaging
Biocompatibility

74

Why are metal implants not ideal for CT/X-Ray?

Can't assess fusion

75

Why are metal implants not ideal for MRI?

MRI uses powerful magnets that can cause movement or heating in metal implants

76

What is an imaging concern with MRI?

Artifact causing signal loss (black spots) or image distortion around the implant making it difficult to asses the region surrounding for fusion or pathology

77

When bone grows in and around an implant providing additional fixation

Osseointegration

78

An alloy of iron with corrosion resistant properties

Stainless steel

79

SS modulus of elasticity is _______ than titanium

Higher

80

Stainless steel may create a _____ _____ or _____ effect in MRI images

Signal void, starburst effect

81

Stainless steel does not osseointegrate

True

82

Some patients may be allergic to ____ in stainless steel

Nickel

83

3 types of titanium used

Unalloyed
Commercially Pure
Alloyed with other metals

84

What is the most common metal used in spinal implants?

CP Titanium

85

CP Ti creates ____ interference in MRI imaging than SS

Less

86

Titanium is exceedingly biocompatible, osseointegrates, and allergies are rare

True

87

Titanium alloys are similar to CP TI in terms of elasticity, imaging, biocomp but may have greater tensile strength (max amount of strain before breaking)

True

88

PEEK stands for...

Polyetheretherketone

89

PEEK modulus of elasticity falls between that of cortical and cancellous bone

True

90

PEEK does not osseointegrate and is instead...

Hydrophobic

91

Cobalt chromium have a ______ modulus of elasticity than that of SS

Higher