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Spinal Anatomy > Module 1 COPY > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 1 COPY Deck (162):
1

How many vertebrae in spine?

33

2

What does the intervertebral disc provide?

Movement, shock absorption, and spacing

3

The discs are securely attached to the vertebrae above and below via...

Cartilaginous endplates

4

Facets are also called...

Zygapophyseal joints

5

The posterior aspects of the veterbrae form...

Facet joints

6

What attaches to the spine to create movement?

Muscles

7

What are the function of spinal ligaments?

Connect vertebrae and prevent extreme motions that could cause injury

8

Which foramen does the spinal cord pass through?

Vertebral foramen

9

Which foramen does the spinal nerve pass through?

Intervertebral foramen

10

What is the function of the spinal cord?

Transmit nerve signals between the brain and body

11

Number of cervical vertebrae

7

12

Number of thoracic vertebrae

12

13

Number of lumbar vertebrae

5

14

Number of sacral vertebrae

5

15

Number of coccyx vertebrae

4

16

A lordotic curve is...

concave towards posterior

17

A kyphotic curve is

Concave towards anterior

18

Lordotic curves are found in

Cervical and lumbar spine

19

Kyphotic curves are found in

Thoracic Spine

20

Sagittal plane curves serve three functions

Flexibility, balance, and shock absorption

21

Part of spine primarily responsible for weight bearing

Vertebral body

22

Opening formed by the union of the posterior arch with the vertebral body

Vertebral foramen

23

Spinal cord and cauda equina pass through this

Vertebral foramen

24

Bony bridge between the vertebral body and the posterior arch

Pedicle

25

Connection between anterior and posterior columns of spine

Pedicle

26

Bony protrusion on either side of the posterior arch of the vertebra, originating from junction of lamina and pedicle

Transverse Process

27

Attachment for muscles and ligaments

Transverse process

28

The portion of the posterior arch of the vertebra between the transverse processes and the spinous process

Lamina

29

Completes the bony ring protecting the spinal cord and cauda equina

Lamina

30

Bony protrusion on the caudal (toward feet) aspect of the vertebra that articulates with the vertebra below

Inferior articular process

31

Joins with the superior articular process of the vertebra below to form a facet joint

Inferior articular process

32

Joins with the inferior articular process of the vertebra above to form a facet joint

Superior articular process

33

The cervical spine articulates cranially with the...

occiput

34

The cervical spine allows.....

flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation

35

Cervical spine is discussed in two segments...

C1, C2 C3-C7

36

These cervical spine vertebrae are uniquely shaped

Upper cervical

37

These cervical spine vertebrae are consistent in appearance

Lower cervical

38

This vertebrae is known as the atlas

C1

39

Which vertebrae articulates with the occiput

C1/Atlas

40

Described as a ring of bone

Atlas/C1

41

Has TPs, transverse foramen, but lacks vertebral body and a spinous process

C1/atlas

42

This vertebrae is known as axis

C2

43

While this vertebrae is uniquely shaped it does have a vertebral body, spinous process, TP, etc.) in addition to a dens or odontoid process

C2/Axis

44

C2 has a bony process called the dens which is also known as

odontoid process

45

The dens of C_ extends cranially into the ring of C_

C2 into C1

46

This is a pivot point around which C1 can rotate

Dens

47

The rotation of C1 on C2 makes up __% of the rotation in the cervical spine

50%

48

Which are the only vertebrae that lack a disc?

C1 and C2

49

The ____ complex is less stable than the rest of the spine

C1-C2

50

This ligament wraps around the dens and holds it to the ring of C1

Transverse

51

When the transverse ligmaent comes together with two longitudinal bands to form a cross shape, these are referred to as the ______ ligament

Cruciform

52

The _____ and _____ ligaments connect the tip of the dens to the occiput

Apical and alar

53

The spinous processes of the cervical spine are ______

Bifid

54

These three structures make the cervical vertebrae different from the rest of the spine

Lateral mass, transverse foramina, and uncinate process

55

The _____ is made up of the superior and inferior articular processes and the transverse process

Lateral mass

56

This is a column of bone on either side of the vertebral body that provides additional stability for the head

Lateral mass

57

These are openings in the transverse processes of the cervical spine through which the vertebral arteries travel

Transverse foramen

58

Generally, the vertebral arteries travel through the transverse foramen of C_ to C_

C1-C6, however, this is subject to individual anatomic variation

59

This is a lip of bone on the lateral aspect of the vertebral body in the cervical spine

Uncinate process

60

In C3 through C7, this creates a small joint with the vertebral body above that is known as the _____ joint or Joint of _______

uncovertebral joint, Joint of Luschka

61

The uncovertebral joint or Joint of Lucshka prevents ______ _______ _____ of the cervical vertebrae

Excessive lateral motion

62

The joints between the thoracic vertebrae and the ribs

Costal facets

63

The size of the vertebrae in the lumbar spine is in response to the________

Amount of load they are required to bear

64

The region of the lamina between the superior and inferior articular processes

Pars interarticularis

65

The forward displacement of one vertebra over another

Spondylolisthesis

66

Deformities in the pars can lead to

Spondylolisthesis

67

Transitions load from the spine into the plevis and lower extremities

Sacrum

68

Represents the vestigial tail from our mammalian ancestors

Coccyx

69

Consists of 5 vertebrae that fuse together by the time a person reaches skeletal maturity

Sacrum

70

Three important anatomical landmarks on the sacrum

Sacral ala, sacral foramen, sacral promontory

71

Broad flat region of the anterior surface of S1 where it articulates with the ilium of the pelvis

Sacral ala

72

Openings in the anterior and posterior surface of the sacrum through which nerve roots exit

Sacral foramen

73

The typical sacrum has ____ pairs of nerve roots

4

74

The most superior portion of the first sacral vertebra - contains very dense bone and can provide good purchase for screws in the sacrum

Sacral promontory

75

Formed by two hip bones and sacrum

Pelvis

76

Broad, flat portion of the hip bone

Illium

77

Cranial surface of ilium

Iliac crest

78

Lower posterior portion of hip bone

Ischium

79

Lower anterior portion of the hip bone

Pubic bone

80

What are the two components of the intervertebral disc

annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus

81

Tough outer layer of woven cartilage fibers

Annulus

82

The annulus is _____ anteriorly due to _____ _____

Thicket, higher loads

83

Inner portion of disc that is more gelatinous and has a higher water content

Nucleus

84

Where the cartilaginous fibers of the disc anchor

Cartilaginous endplate

85

What percent of the overall height of the spine does the disc constitute

25%

86

Three main functions of disc

Spacer, distribute load, accommodate movement

87

Disc maintains height of _____ _____

Intervertebral foramen

88

The soft makeup of the discs allows them to assist in absorbing and distributing _____ forces that the spine experiences on daily basis

Axial

89

Five main ligament structures that prevent extremes of motion that could damage spine and spinal cord

ALL, PLL, supraspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament

90

Ligament that runs along the anterior surface of VBs from occiput to sacrum - resists excessive extension

ALL

91

Runs along posterior surface of VBs beginning at occiput and extending to sacrum, resists excessive extensions

PLL

92

Ligament that runs along the tip of each spinous process from C7 to sacrum - resists excessive flexion

supraspinous ligament

93

Ligament that connects the lamina of adjacent vertebrae

Ligament flavum

94

Ligament that connects the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae

Interspinous ligament

95

Continous spinal ligaments

ALL, PLL, supraspinous ligaments

96

Segmental spinous ligaments

Ligamentum flavum and interspinous ligaments

97

Represents supraspinous ligament in cervical spine

Nuchal ligament (connects the occiput and spinous processes of C1 to C7)

98

Facet joints are true joints with a ___ ___ and ___ ____

Capsular membrane, synovial fluid

99

In the cervical spine the facets are oriented in the ____ plane tilted ____ at approximately ___ degrees to the axial plane

axial, cranially, 45 degrees

100

What does the axial orientation of cervical facets allow

Rotation, lateral bending, flexion/extension

101

In the thoracic spine, the facets are oriented in the ____ plane and positioned at an angle, generally __ degrees, to the axial plane

front plane, 60 degrees

102

The angled orientation of the thoracic facets resists ______

rotation

103

The ____ ____ is the only achievable movement of the thoracic spine

Cat stretch

104

In the lumbar spine, the facets are oriented in the _____ plane at an angle approximately ____ to the frontal plane

Sagitall, 45 degrees

105

The sagittal plane orientation of the lumbar facets resists ______ but allows ____ ___ and ___ ___

Rotation, lateral bending, flexion/extension

106

Unlike the facets in the cervical and thoracic spine, the facets in the lumbar spine are _____

Curved (superior articular processes slightly concave, inferior articular processes slightly convex)

107

The spinal cord is part of the ___ ____ ____

Central nervous system

108

The main function of the spinal cord is to ____

carry sensory and motor signals back and forth between the body and the brain

109

What part of the skull does the spinal cord pass through

Foramen magnum

110

The ___ ___ encloses and protects the spinal cord

vertebral column

111

what level does the spinal cord extend to

L1

112

The spinal cord tapers to a cone shape called the ____ ____ as it transitions from the spinal cord to the ____ _____

conus medullaris, cauda equina

113

A bundle of nerve elements contained within a membranous sack

Cauda equina

114

The filaments of the cauda equina exit the spine as the ___, ____, and ____ nerves

lumbar, sacral, coccygeal nerves

115

The three membranes of the spinal cord are

dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater (collectively known as meninges)

116

The "potential space" between the dura mater and arachnoid

subdural space

117

The space between the arachnoid and pia mater

subarachnoid space

118

Where is the cerebral spinal fluid located

Subarachnoid space

119

What does cerebral spinal fluid do?

Bathes the spinal cord and brain, cushioning and protecting the delicate neural structures

120

Lies directly over the neural tissues of the spinal cord

Pia mater

121

Transmit signals to specific areas of the body

Spinal nerves

122

The two nerve roots that exit the spinal cord are called

Dorsal and ventral nerve root

123

Transmits sensory information

Dorsal nerve root

124

Transmits motor information

Ventral nerve root

125

Number of spinal nerve pairs

31

126

Number of cervical spine nerve pairs

8

127

Number of thoracic nerve pairs

12

128

Number of Lumbar nerve pairs

5

129

Number of sacral nerve pairs

5

130

Number of coccygeal nerve pairs

1

131

______ spinal nerves are named for the vertebrae they exit above

Cervical

132

Where does the C8 spinal nerve exit the spine?

Between C7 and T1

133

All spinal nerves except for cervical are named for the vertebrae they exit ______

Below

134

Individual spinal nerves innervate specific regions of skin called ________

Dermatomes

135

____ are used to diagnose the level of spinal injury

Dermatomes

136

Responsible for innervation of the arms

Cervical spinal nerves

137

Responsible for innervation of the torso

Thoracic nerves

138

Responsible for innervation of the legs

Lumbar and sacral

139

The two branches of a spinal nerve after exiting foramen

Dorsal ramus and ventral ramus

140

Innervate posterior skin and muscles of back

Dorsal ramus

141

Travel anteriorly where they join together and reorganize into peripheral nerves of the body

Ventral rami

142

A network of intersecting and dividing nerves

Nerve plexus

143

The five nerve plexuses in the body

Cerval, brachial, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

144

Characterized by a total loss of motor, sensory and reflex functions below the level of injury.

Complete lesion

145

Injury named by the last functioning nerve root (i.e., C4 quadriplegia).

Complete cord injury

146

Some function below the level of injury. Variable in the amount of function, and whether or not that function is useful for the patient.

Incomplete lesion

147

________ symptoms occur in a specific region, usually corresponding to a dermatome.

Radicular

148

– Numbness – Tingling – Weakness – Paresthesia (feeling of pins and needles)

Radicular symptom

149

These symptoms usually occur over a larger general area, often on both sides of the body.

Myelopathic symptoms

150

– Gait disturbances – Bowel and bladder dysfunction – Generalized weakness

Myelopathic symptoms

151

Exits heart and travels caudally, directly anterior to spine

Aorta

152

Carries oxygenated blood from the heart and distributes it to the body

Aorta

153

Carries deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart

Vena cava

154

Iliac arteries

Bifurcation of aorta around L4-L5

155

Exit aorta at every level

Segmental artery

156

The aorta bifurcates into the...

Iliac arteries

157

The vena cava is formed by the confluence of the...

Iliac veins

158

Which arteries wrap around the vertebral body and supply the vertebrae and spinal cord with blood

Segmental arteries

159

These vessels carry blood to and from the head

Carotid artery and jugular vein

160

In the cervical spine, the vertebral arteries branch off the aorta via the...

Subclavian arteries

161

Damage to this artery is a potential complication of spine surgery

Subclavian arteries

162

Supply blood to the base of the brain

Subclavian artery