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Flashcards in Interpretation of Imaging Studies Deck (21)
1

Definition of RADIOPAQUE

-not allowing the passage of x-rays (more white, metal)

2

Definition of RADIOLUCENT

-allow passage of x-rays (more black, air)

3

X-RAY (plain films)
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-indications
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

how work:
-photons, shorter the wavelength=greater energy
-source, detector, camera

Advantages: see bones
Disadvantages: exposure to radiation

CI:??

Contrast: generally no, but special circumstance

Radiation: chest: 10mRem Abd: 70mRem

-Used to diagnose CXR, KUB, skeletal films, dental films, plain abd films

4

Attenuation Def

x-ray radiation is absorbed and attenuated (weakened) as it passes through diff tissues.

* greater the density of tissue= greater absorption of xray>>>less clear image (less energy gets to film to produce picture)

5

Factors affecting image quality of XRAY

motion, thickness of body part, scatter, magnification, distortion ( image not lined up with film)

6

Heart Looks larger on PA or AP?

AP

7

Which produces better films, AP or PA?

PA!!!!!!

8

FLOUROSCOPY
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.
-examples of use

Works: real time/moving XRAY, image recorded and played back

Advantage: live images, can be played back, allows you to see its functionality

Disadvantage: need for barium in body

CI- barium may be aspirated into lungs causing pneuomonitis,

Contrast: yes; barium

radiation: yes

Used to diagnose: cancers of head, tumors, hiatal hernia, structural problems, muscle disorders, strictures, GERD

Used for: GI barium swallow studies, draning abcesses, angiography

9

UPPER GI SERIES & UGI w/ BOWEL FOLLOW THROUGH
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

Works: x-ray examination of esophogus, stomach, and duodenum
-multiple xrays taken to see how well contrast moves throughout the upper GI.

Advantage: follow contrast w/ limited radiation exposure
Disadvantage: some radiation exposure, requires contrast

Contrast: yes

Radiation: 600mREM

Used to diagnose:
-ulcers, GERD, inflamm, tumor, polyp, diverticula, dysphagia, motility disorders, strictures

10

CT/CAT SCAN
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-indications
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

work: computer assisted tomography, uses xrays to create cross-sectional pictures of the body
*Smaller distance between slices= better detail though significant amount of more radiation


Advantage:
-useful for eval of soft tissue and bone
- xray generates 3D image
-cheaper than MRI
-can image any body part
-can perform CT angiography

Disadvantages: more radiation than one x-ray

CI: iodinated (IV)(renal failure) and barium contrast (oral)(allergy)

Contrast: yes (2 types)

Degree of radiation: Chest: 700mRem

Used to diagnose: soft tissue/bone/organs


11

MRI
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Works; magnetic field using pulses of radio-wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures

advantage: no radiation, BEST for soft tissue, contrast is not iodine based- well tolerated

Disadvantage: -contrast may cause worsening renal failure, cannot have recent metal in body
-side effects of contrast (warm and pee pants)

CI: renal issues; wouldnt be able to take contrast

Contrast: yes, may be used.

Radiation: none

Used to diagnose: soft tissue; brain, spinal cord, muscles, tendons, ligaments


12

ULTRASOUND
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

Works: transducer converts electrical energy into a brief pulse of high frequency sound energy that is transmitted into patient tissues. Transducer then becomes receiver that detects sound echos reflected from tissues.

Advantages:
-Image virtually any part of the body.
-no radiation
-noninvasive
-contrast can be used in special circumstances (cardiac)

Disadvantages:
-technology limited by fat and air


Radiation exposure: none

Used to diagnose: cancer, cyst, gall stone, babies, cardiac, etc.

13

Hyperechoic

White spots (bone and dense tissue). Increased amplitude of ultrasound waves returned.

14

Hypoechoic

Dark spots (air, fluid, less dense tissue). Decreased amplitude of ultrasound waves returned.

15

DOPPLAR ULTRASOUND
-how it works
-examples of use

works: uses reflected sound waves to evaluate blood as it flows through blood vessel

Helpful for determining clots, plaque, stenosis

16

NUCLEAR IMAGING
-how it works
-used for
-radiation

Work: uses isotope in body, isotope emits gamma rays to camera and produces image

Radiation: study dependent
Cardiac: 4070mRem
Bone Scan: 630mRem

Used for: bone scan,PET scan, MUGA, myocardial perfusion scan,

17

PET SCAN
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantage
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

Positron Emission Tomography

Work: isotope goes to areas that are metabolically active,
produces 3d image of functional processes.

Advantages: able to evaluate cancer or remission of cancer

Disadvantages:$$$

Contrast: no

Radiation: variable

Used to diagnose:
-cancer

18

ANGIOGRAPHY
-how it works
-advantages/disadvantages
-CI
-Contrast yes/no?
-degree of radiation exposure
-Used to diagnose______.

Works: obtained using flouroscopy

Advantages: can be obtained via CT, MRI, and flouroscopy

Disadvantage:Invasive

CI:risk of thrombosis, dissection, bleeding, sedated, contrast allergy/ life threatening rxn, renal failure

Contrast: IV contrast

Radiation: involved in all except MRI angio

Used to diagnose: imaging blood vessels

19

Tissue Densities XRAY

White-->Black

metal, bone, blood, liver(middle of spectrum), lung, fat, air

20

T1/T2 Weighted image Color Scales

T1
CSF calcium grey matter, white matter, fat;bone marrow; melanin
--------------------------------------------
bone;fat, white matter, grey matter, csf, brain edema;water
T2


Black---> White
* Grey matter is same for both
view slide 51

* CSF darker on T1
*White matter darker on T2
*Fat is darker on T2

21

What does the white tissue look like in a Scan of skull/brain

MRI
CT

MRI- thin fat

CT- thick bone