Introduction Flashcards Preview

Biodiversity And Conservation > Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

Why should we conserve biodiversity

To maintain species for intrinsic value to drive the whole planet

2

How is the variety of life on Earth spread

Not evenly, it’s concentrated in special places

3

What is causing current amphibian species richness to decline

climate change
Chytridiomycosis (pathogen)
Threat from land use change

4

What is biodiversity

It generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth . It encompasses all levels of natural variations from molecular and genetic levels to species level and beyond to variation at the landscape level

5

What is the simplest way to measure biodiversity

Species richness (all levels of biodiversity from molecular and genetic to species level)

6

How many species are on the planet

12 million (only 15% described)

7

What do molecular tools reveal

Vast diversity microbes

8

How many prokaryotes are in a handful of soil

More than 10,000 genetically distinct ones

9

How many species of fungus on the world is there

1.5 million of which only 100,000 is known

10

What is the most diverse group of land plants

The flowering plant (angiosperms) also known as abgiospermae or magnoliophyta

11

How many families are in the angiosperms

416

12

How do we know which parts of the planet species are concentrated

The development of global biodiversity information facility

13

What does the vertebrate map show

More species near the equator. Spatial patterns shows us that all the biodiversity is concentrated in a specific area. We are seeing a latitudinal pattern/ gradient or species richness from poles to the tropics.

14

What does Huston say

It has been long recognised that the number of species in most taxonomic groups is lowest in the piles and increases towards the tropics

15

How much diversity is in the different regions

Little in the polar
More in the alpine
Lots in the forests, meadows, sub-tropics, humid tropics with rainforests

16

Example of a sub-tropic location

Hawaii

17

Example of humid tropics

Central Africa
Australia
South America
Asia

18

What is the 0 latitude

The equator

19

What is there a sharp increase of as latitude increases

Species richness

20

When does cross-taxon oceanic average species richness peak

At 30* latitude north or south in all oceans

21

What is the latitudinal pattern of diversity for sea birds

Greatest abundance and diversity at high latitudes (high productivity of northern oceans) so opposite to the usual pattern of diversity (decreased)

22

How many species are in the Antarctic

17 species of flightless penguins
22 species of non-migratory Auks, Myers and Puffins.

23

What is the pattern of diversity for lichens

Maximal diversity in dry/cold regions and boreal forest. In the Uk they are concentrated in the north so it doesn’t follow this rule.

24

How are microbes cosmopolitan

Abeyance of free living microbes are so large that their dispersal is rarely restricted by geographical barriers

25

What is present in a single patch of grassland in Scotland

One third of the global diversity of soil Protozoa

26

What are the four hypotheses about why there are so many species in tropics compared to the poles

Energy species hypothesis
Heterogeneity hypothesis
Rapoports rule
Combination of them all

27

What is the energy species hypothesis

The availability of resources and climate dictates number co-existing species in given area (ie more available energy in the tropics) energy drives species

28

What is the heterogeneity hypothesis (not a great hypothesis)

Suggests a general increase in heterogeneity as move towards the tropics. Heterogeneity creates more habitats (macro and micro habitats so more species)

29

What is the rapoports rule

Suggests that the geographic range of species decreases as it moves poles-tropics. A bio geographic principle that says as latitude decreases a decrease in the geographical extent of both animal and plant species can be observed

30

How does PET fit in the the energy-species hypothesis

If water is available and not limited this is driven by temperature. If evapotranspiration is higher in tropics with more temperature, there’s less in poles bc it’s colder.