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Flashcards in Measuring Biodivrrsity Deck (34)
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1

What are the four ways of measuring biodiversity

Species richness/diversity (alpha diversity)
Species composition (beta diversity)
Phylogenetic diversity
Functional diversity

2

Briefly what is species composition

The species present in different areas and comparing their distribution - opposite to jaccard similarity index

3

Briefly what is phylogenetic diversity

Variability in genetic viability

4

Briefly what is functional diversity

What is the function of different organisms within the ecosystem

5

What is endemism

Restricted to a particular area e.g Scottish crossbill

6

What is phylogenetic diversity based on

The phylogenetic distance between species. Higher diversity when species present in the community are less genetically related

7

Why are biodiversity measurements important

Provides tools for selecting areas to prioritise for conservation. We have limited resources and time. Have to feed populations so use resources wisely.

8

Why is it tricky to decide the placesro conserve

Due to the multitude of ways of measuring biodiversity

9

What are biodiversity hotspots

Refers to a geographical area that ranks particularly high species richness. Also based on levels of endemism, number of rare or threatened species.

10

What did Marshall (2016) find

High bioquality implies a high proportion of globally rare plants in an area - species that stand to be lost from the global pool. Shows the most significant areas for global plants but also reveals variations within the areas at a local scale

11

What are the 3 aspects that make it hard to figure which areas to conserve

Species richness
Endemic species richness
Threaten species richness

12

What did Orme (2005) figure out

Only 2.5% of biodiversity hotspots for birds overlap and we can’t just rely on that one area to conserve

13

What is there a lack of congruence between

Species and phylogenetic diversity of terrestrial birds and mammals

14

What are similarity indices (Jaccard) important

To help define complementarity areas

15

What is the complementarity approach

Conserving as much biodiversity as possible in a limited area of land available for consecration

16

What is the evenness concept

We should conserve areas which have equal diversity

17

What is functional diversity

The elements of biodiversity (species traits) that influence how ecosystems function

18

What is ecosystem function

In an ecological context, function is generally considered a synonym for process

19

What is species diversity-ecosystem function

Ecosystem functions are positively related to species richness

20

What are the three things Thompson (2015) looked into

Species richness
Functional diversity
Phylogenetic diversity.
Effects of zooplankton diversity on chlorophyll a in the 23 ponds.

21

What is included with the term ecosystem function

Stocks of materials e.g carbon, water and minerals and rates of processes involving fluxes of energy and matter between trophies levels and the environment

22

What are ecosystem services

Benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living e.g pollination of fruit.
Usually encompasses the tangible and intangible benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems ‘goods’ and ‘services’

23

What 3 things make up ecosystem services

Functional diversity
Ecosystem functioning
Environment and climate change

24

Parts of biodveity

Species richness
Composition
Interactions

25

Parts of ecosystem functioning

Productivity
Biomass
Nutrient cycling

26

Parts of abiotic environment

Temperature
Rainfall
Soil fertility

27

Using the amazon what should we think about when trying to consvere it

Where the forests are and where they’re disappearing.
Where the forests guardians live.
Biggest biodiversity strongholds.
Places that supply fresh water for people.
Forests that store the most carbon.
Areas most vulnerable to climate change impacts.
Amazonias essential natural capital (ecosystem services)

28

What needs to be considered

Complex landscapes and species

29

Unfortunately what are the criterion for selecting habitats for conservation still based on

Degree of representativeness.
Area.
Degree of conversation of the habitat structure and function and restoration possibility.
European Commision Habitats Directive.

30

What is the score or 0 in the classification by natural England

>100,000ha