Flashcards in Selecting Species To Save Deck (48)
What does the Telipogon ampliflorus orchid do
Pumps out pheromones to attract insects with sex - barrow thermal range
What is the criteria for selecting species for consecration
Level of threat
What are the extinction threat categories from the IUCN red list
Extinct in the wild (EW)
Critically endangered (CR)
Near threatened (NT)
Least concern (LC)
Data deficient (DD) and Not evaluated (NE)
How do the IUCN provide their red list
What is the likelihood of a species becoming extinct in the near future, given current knowledge about population trends, range and recent, current or projected threats
What does the IUCN stand for
International Union for Conservation of Nature
What does extinct mean
When there is not doubt that the last individual has died
Example of a species that was thought to be extinct but reducscovwrwd
Largest bee in the world in Indonesia (magachile Pluto)
What does extinct in the wild mean
When it is known only to survive in captivity or as naturalised population well outside the past range
Example of critically endangered species
Example of endangered species
Example of vulnerable species
Rosalia longicorn beetle
What does IUCN data allow us to measure
The trend of threatened species and if it continues
What are the extinction criteria for critically endangered animals
>80% decline over last 10 years.
>25% decline expected over 3 years
<50 mature individuals
50% extinct in last 10 years
What are the extinction criteria for endangered animals
>20% decline over 5 years
>250 immature indicualas
20% in 20 years extinct
What are the extinction criteria for vulnerable animals
0% decline expected in 10 years
10% probability of extinction in 100 years
How to measure extinction threat
Observed/expected/historical decline in numbers.
Geographical area occupied.
Number of populations.
Number of living and breeding individuals.
Known threats and their trajectory.
Problem with measuring extinction threat
Data is often highly incomplete
What does IUCN say about limited data
We shouldn’t allow it to be an excuse for inaction
What are different data sources
Example of an animal to consider assessments at different scale
Red squirrel is endangered in England. Vulnerable in Britain and least concern worldwide
What are some pros of species based conservation
Species more discrete entitles than ecosystems.
Convenient for monitoring.
Public interest in species.
Cons of species based conservation
Little known about most species.
Causes taxonomic bias (vertebrates and higher plants)
Why is there taxonomic bias
Because we rely on public interest and volunteers to do the research there’s taxonomic bias as individuals can’t be bothered to go through the processes if they don’t care about the animals
What is the criteria for selecting areas for consecration
Size of the area
Level of threat
Fragility / vulnerable to change
Example of size of the area having an impact
No. Of reptiles and amphibians on a W. Indian island increase with island size
Example of intactness having an impact
In the Amazonian region
Example of rarity having an impact
Costa Rica has suffered disproportionate loss of tropical dry forest which is a great ecosystem for humans and animals. McDonald’s used to be spruced
Where are global threat hotspots
In South America
In Asia e.g Indonesia
Example of fragility of the system to change having an affect
The Gran Sabana ecosystem is highly vulnerable to disturbance e.g soil compaction. But has lots of biodiversity. Thin soils can be blown away as well - lots of threat.