Flashcards in Introduction to nephrology Deck (42)
What vessel supplies the kidney with blood?
What vessel drains the kidney with blood?
Where does the urine travel?
Down via the ureter to the bladder
What are the units that make up the kidney called?
How does the renal artery divide?
Renal artery -> capillary loop -> glomerulus
The capillary walls are specialised for transport of fluid and salt
TRUE or FALSE
Where does the fluid collect once it is filtered in the glomerulus?
In the Bowman's Capsule
How many litres of blood are filtered a day?
How many litres of urine are produced a day?
Everyone starts with the same number of nephrons
TRUE or FALSE
Not everyone starts with the same number of nephrons
Danish adults have less mean number of nephrons than Americans and Australians
What difference does nephron number make in the health of a kidney?
Nephron number accounts for differences in susceptibility to kidney disease
Premature babies = less nephrons and higher susceptibility to hypertension/ renal disease
What are the functions of the kidney?
Salt and water regulation
Maintains acid-base balance
Activates vitamin D
Why is it important to regulate salt and water in the blood?
Maintains blood pressure
How do the kidneys maintain acid-base balance?
Absorbs and secretes electrolytes/ salts/ sugars
What is the role of EPO?
Stimulates RBC production
What does vitamin D regulate?
Calcium and phosphate concentration
What are methods by which we can measure kidney function?
Clearance of compounds
Filtration of water and electrolytes
Concentration of macromolecules in the urine
Production of vitamin D/ EPO
Whic compounds can we use to measure the clearance by the kidneys?
Urea and serum creatinine
What is creatinine?
Molecules formed by the breakdown of creatinine phosphate in the muscle
Produced at a constant rate by the body
Excreted unchanged by the kidneys
Why is measuring the filtration of water or electrolytes not practical to determine kidney function?
Have to collect urine over time to eradicate minute to minute alterations
Why is measuring the concentration of macromolecules in the urine a good way to determine kindey function?
A healthy filtration barrier should not let macromolecules pass through
What are examples of macromolecules?
What are the 2 ways in which production of vitamin D or EPO can be measured in the blood?
Measure directly in blood
Can also measure indirectly - calcium phosphate balance or RBC count
Do men or women have higher GFR?
Higher muscle mass - higher GFR needed
Do old or young people have higher GFR?
Have higher muscle mass
What is the relationship between GFR and serum creatinine?
Large change in GFR leads to a small change in serum creatinine
Large change in serum creatinine leads to a small change in GFR
How does renal function change with age?
GFR declines as we age - scarring of kidneys over time
Decline in GFR isn't enough to lead to kidney disease
What is the average decline of GFR as we age?
What are the symptoms of kindey failure?
Dirty blood - inadequate filtration
High blood pressure