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Kidneys and Hormones > Tubular injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tubular injury Deck (13):
1

What parts of the kidney fall under intrinsic renal damage?

Glomerulus and tubules

Found in the connective tissue of the kidney - interstitium

2

What 3 categories can we divide renal injury into?

Pre - renal kidney injury

Injury to the interstitium

Tubular injury

3

Why are the tubules often the site of kidney injury?

Problems that affect the blood supply affects the tubule disproportionately

Tubular cells are very metabolically active

Tubules have major role in movement of molecules from urine to the blood

Tubules may become blocked

4

How does the role of the tubules make them more predisposed to tubular injury?

The movement of molecules from the urine to the blood sometimes includes toxins

These toxins are often found in high concentration in the tubules

Cause damage in the tubules

5

How does the fact that the tubules are very metabolically active make them predisposed to tubular injury?

Cells require lots of energy to perform normal function

Any reduction in the substrates that provide energy to the cells lead to kidney injury

6

How may tubules become blocked?

Substances can precipitate in the urine

May lead to inflammatory response and damage

7

What does the biopsy of a healthy kidney look like?

Tubules are preserved

Tubular cells are large and healthy

Tubular cells have little gaps between them

8

What does the biopsy of a diseased kidney look like?

Gaps in tubules - cells that line the tubules are unhealthy/died

Space between the tubules - oedema

Glomerulus is preserved - no major problems

9

Does the glomerulus remain preserved after tubular injury?

Yes

Kidney biopsies see no major structural problems in the glomerulus of a kidney with tubular injury

10

What causes tubular injury?

Impaired perfusion - pre-renal injury that continues for long enough causes tubular injury

Toxins - concentrate in tubular cells

Substances that precipitate - causes inflammatory response

11

What are the two types of toxins that can lead to tubular injury?

Endogenous - myoglobin or hemoglobin

Exogenous - antibiotics, antiretrovirals, iodinated radiocontrast

12

What are the two types of substances that can precipitate and cause tubular injury?

Endogenous substances - uric acid, immunoglobulin light chains

Exogenous substances - antivirals

13

What condition can lead to tubular injury by production of substances that precipitate?

Myeloma

Plasma cell cancer

Increases antibody production

Antibodies precipitate and lead to tubular injury