Pre-renal kidney disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pre-renal kidney disease Deck (15):
1

What are the two types of pre-renal kidney disease?

Acute - over days or weeks

Chronic - over months or years

2

How can you measure acute pre-renal kidney disease?

Increase serum creatinine

Decrease in urine output

3

What are the 3 categories of kidney disease?

Pre-renal - damage occurs due to problems with perfusion of the kidneys

Intrinsic - damage to the kidney itself => glumerulonephritis

Post-renal - blockage to flow of urine out of the kidney

4

What percentage of CO goes to the kidney in health?

25%

5

Which 3 conditions lead to pre-renal injury?

Circulatory shock - entire CO decreases

Reduced circulatory volume - intravascular volume depletion

Reduction of blood flow only to the kidneys

6

What is circulatory shock?

Low BP

7

How does circulatory shock lead to pre-renal kidney injury?

Not enough blood volume or CO to perfuse the kidney

8

What are the causes of circulatory shock?

Cardiogenic shock

Hypovolemia - not enough circulating volume

Vasodilation - caused by sepsis or anaphylaxis

9

Why does reduced circulating volume lead to pre-renal kidey injury?

Kidneys are very affected by blood volume - even though the BP remains normal

10

What causes intravascular depletion?

Not enough fluid intake - physically dependant, no access to fluids

Loose a lot of fluids - urine , GI tract, oedema and skin

Redistribution of water to extravascular spaces

11

How does excess water leave the body through the skin?

Sweat, fever or burns

12

How does excess water leave the body through the GI tract?

Malabsorption, inflammation and cholera

13

How does excess water leaver the body through urine?

Diuretics

Osmotic diuresis - glycosuria

14

What are the clinical presentation of redistribution of water to extravascular spaces?

Oedema

Adequate total fluid but inadequate fluid volume in the circulation

15

What things cause a reduction of blood flow only to the kidneys?

Arterial narrowing - artery stenosis

Vasoconstriction - medication

Arterial thrombosis - trauma

Venous thrombosis - pro-coagulant state