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Flashcards in Water balance Deck (45)
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1

What determines the plasma volume that perfuse organs?

Amount of water in the blood

2

What is hyperosmolality?

Too little water

3

What are the symptoms of hyperosmolarity?

Diarrhea

Vomiting

Negative water balance

Reduced water volume

Increased blood viscosity

Headache

Cramps

4

What are the symtoms of hyposmolality?

Low serum sodium levels

Headache

Vomiting

Confusion

Seizures

Coma

Muscle weakness

5

How much water is lost by insensible losses?

0.5 - 1L

6

What are insensible losses?

Non-urine losses

Sweating, breathing, faeces

7

How much water is lost in the urine a day?

1.5 L

8

What is the recommended volume of water that should be taken in during a day?

2 - 2.5 L

Through consumption of food and drink

9

What is the percentage of water in the body?

60%

10

What percentage of body water is found in the cells?

40% inside the cells - intracellular fluid

11

What percentage of body water is found between cells?

15% in between cells - interstitial fluid

12

What percentage of body water is found in blood plasma and lymph?

5%

13

Is water distribution between intracellular and extracellular compartments interchangeable?

Yes

14

What regulates the movement of water to and from the intracellular compartment?

Osmotic pressure

15

What is the major solute determining osmotic pressure in the intracellular compartment?

Potassium

16

What is the major solute determining osmotic pressure in the extracellular compartment?

Sodium

17

What is the plasma oncotic pressure?

Pressure exerted by plasma proteins that cannot move across capillary walls

18

What are the forces that determine the water distribution in the vascular compartment?

Oncotic pressure

Hydrostatic pressure

19

What does the hydrostatic pressure do to water distribution?

Pushes water out of the vascular space

20

What does the oncotic pressure do to water distribuyion?

Draws water into the vascular space

21

What happens to the blood pressure in high plasma protein levels?

High blood pressure

22

What is plasma oncotic pressure?

Pressure exerted by plasma proteins that cannot move across capillary walls

23

What are examples of specialised structures maintains perfusion of vital organs?

Baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus

Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus

JG cells in the kidney

24

Where are baroreceptors found?

In the aortic arch and carotid sinus

25

Where are the osmoreceptors found?

In the hypothalamus

26

Where are the JG cells found?

In the kidney

27

What do baroreceptors react to?

Changes in vascular tone and cardiac output

28

What do baroreceptors do to maintain homeostasis?

Cause volume changes

29

What do osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus react to?

Thirst

Vasopressin release

30

What do osmoreceptors do to maintain homeostasis?

Causes osmolality changes