IV. Basic Osteology of the Vertebral Column, Sternum, and Ribs Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > IV. Basic Osteology of the Vertebral Column, Sternum, and Ribs > Flashcards

Flashcards in IV. Basic Osteology of the Vertebral Column, Sternum, and Ribs Deck (278):
1

What is the name given to the front of the C1 bony ring?

the anterior arch

2

What osseous modification is observed to the front of the anterior arch of C1?

the anterior tubercle

3

What is observed on the back of the anterior arch of C1?

the fovea dentis

4

What attaches behind the anterior arch of C1?

the lateral mass

5

What is the name given to the upper margin of the lateral mass of C1?

the superior articular process

6

What does the superior articular process of C1 support?

the superior articular facet

7

What is the name given tot he lower margin of the lateral mass of C1?

the inferior articular process

8

What does the inferior articular process of C1 support?

the inferior articular facet

9

What is the name of the rounded elevation of the medial aspect of the lateral mass of C1?

tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament

10

What attaches to the back of the lateral mass of C1?

the posterior arch

11

What is identified in the midline at the back of the posterior arch of C1?

the posterior tubercle

12

What superior surface modification of the posterior arch of C1 is present near the lateral mass?

groove/sulcus for the vertebral artery

13

What superior surface modification is present near the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

the arcuate rim

14

What attaches to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of atlas and to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of atlas?

a complete ponticulus posticus

15

Based on the amount of bony union between the superior articular process and the arcuate rim of C1 what structure will form?

an incomplete ponticulus posticus or a complete ponticulus posticus

16

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen or retroarticular canal

17

What is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1?

the inferior vertebral notch

18

What is the name given to the triangular area of bone arising from the lateral mass of C1?

the transverse process

19

What is the name given to the anterior part of the transverse process of C1?

the costal element

20

What is the name given to the posterior part of the transverse process of C1?

the true transverse process

21

What is the distal most part of the transverse process of C1?

the posterior tuberccle

22

What opening is identified in the transverse process of C1?

the transverse foramen

23

What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?

the dens or odontoid process

24

What surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis, groove for transverse atlantal ligament, attachment sites for the alar ligaments, attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

25

What feature is identified on the anterior surface of the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis

26

What feature is identified on the posterior surface of the odontoid process of C2?

groove for transverse atlantal ligament

27

What feature is identified on the superolateral margins of the odontoid process of C2?

attachment sites for the alar ligaments

28

What feature is identified on the tip of the odontoid process of C2?

attachment site for the apical-dental ligament

29

What feature is identified on the anterior surface of the vertebral body of C2?

the longus colli muscle attachment

30

What features are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

the inferior epiphyseal rim and cancellous bone

31

What feature is identified on the anterior surface of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

the anterior lip

32

What feature is identified on the posterior surface of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

the posterior lip

33

What features are present at the lateral margins of the inferior epiphyseal rim of C2?

right and left lateral grooves

34

What features arise from the posterolateral margins of the vertebral body of C2?

the pedicles

35

What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?

the superior articular process

36

What covers the upper surface of the superior articular process of C2?

the superior articular facet

37

What is the location of the superior vertebral notch of C2?

on the lamina-pedicle junction

38

What feature is identified on the lower surface of the pedicle of C2?

the inferior vertebral notch or inferior vertebral incisure

39

What is the location of the inferior articular process of C2?

on the lamina-pedicle junction behind the inferior vertebral notch

40

What osseous parts of the typical cervical transverse process are present at C2?

costal element, posterior tubercle, and true transverse process

41

What is the name given to the anterior part of the transverse process of C2?

the costal element

42

What is the name given to the posterior part of the transverse process of C2?

the true transverse process

43

What is the distal most part of the transverse process of C2?

the posterior tubercle

44

What opening is identified in the transverse process of C2?

the transverse foramen

45

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?

it is bifid

46

What are the modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

47

What are the names of the lateral modifications of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

uncinate process, unciform process, uncovertebral process, uncus or lateral lip

48

What is the anterior modification of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior groove

49

What is the posterior modification of the superior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

posterior groove

50

What are the modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior lip, posterior lip, right and left lateral grooves

51

What is the name given to the lateral modifications of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

lateral groove

52

What is the name given to the anterior modification of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

anterior lip

53

What is the name given to the posterior modification of the inferior epiphyseal rim of a typical cervical?

posterior lip

54

What attaches to the posterolateral margin and in the center of a typical cervical vertebral body?

the pedicle

55

What surface feature is located at the upper margin of the pedicle?

superior vertebral notch

56

What surface feature is located at the lower margin of the pedicle?

inferior vertebral notch

57

What bony feature is attached to the posterior end of the pedicle?

the articular pillar

58

What is located at the top of the articular pillar?

the superior articular process

59

The superior articular process will provide support for what bone feature?

the superior articular facet

60

What is located at the bottom of the articular pillar?

the inferior articular process

61

The inferior articular process will provide support for what bone feature?

the inferior articular facet

62

What is the name of the surface feature observed between the ends of hte articular pillar?

the groove/sulcus for the dorsal ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

63

What bone feature is attached to the posterior part of the articular pillar?

the lamina

64

What is the direction of projection of the cervical lamina?

posteromedially

65

What ligament attaches tot he lamina a typical cervical?

ligamentum flavum

66

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on the lamina will result in what feature?

para-articular processes

67

To what parts of the typical cervical vertebra is the transverse process attached?

the vertebral body and the articular pillar

68

List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse process beginning at the vertebral body.

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

69

What is the distal modification of the costal element of a typical cervical vertebra?

the anterior tubercle

70

What is the distal modification of the true transverse process of a typical cervicals?

the posterior tubercle

71

What bony feature connects the anterior and posterior tubercles of a typical cervical transverse process?

costotransverse bar or intertubercular lamella

72

What is the name given to the superior margin of the costotransverse bar?

sulcus for the ventral primary ramus of a cervical spinal nerve

73

What is the name given to the modification of the anterior tubercle of the C6 transverse process?

the carotid tubercle

74

What is the usual condition for the Caucasian typical cervical spinous process?

they are bifid

75

What is the usual condition for the African-American typical cerivcal spinous process?

they are non-bifid

76

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

77

What surfaces are present on the superior epiphyseal rim of the vertebral body of C7?

anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

78

What is the appearance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of C7?

typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristics of the typical cervicals

79

What are the osseous parts of the transverse process of C7?

costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

80

What are the features of the spinous process of C7?

long, horizontal, nonbifid

81

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T1 from superior view?

somewhat rectangular with curved anterior margins

82

What is the appearance of the vertebral body of T1 from the anterior view?

both sides will appear to be scalloped (indented) between the epiphyseal rims

83

What is the appearance of the superior surface of the vertebral body of T1?

it is somewhat cup-shaped with elevations at the posterior and lateral margin

84

What may the elevations on the vertebral body of T1 represent?

uncinate process

85

What is the appearance of the inferior surface of the vertebral body of T1?

typically flate, lacking anterior and posterior lips characteristic of the cervicals

86

What surfaces are present on the upper and lower margins of the T1 vertebral body?

the right and left superior costal facet and right and left inferior costal demi-facet

87

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body of T1?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

88

What is the direction of the transverse process at T1?

the transverse process projects nearly straight out laterally

89

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T1?

the transverse tubercle

90

What is present on the transverse tubercle of T1?

the transverse costal facet

91

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets for T1?

they face forward and outward

92

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T1?

the undersurface of the T1 spinous process will be nearly horizontal

93

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental groups?

the vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

94

On cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T2-T4 group?

the vertebral body will have bilaterally convex sides

95

On cranial view, what is the outline of the vertebral body for the T5-T8 group?

the left side of the vertebral body will be flattened, the right side convex

96

What is the appearance of the vertebral body from the anterior view for T2-T4?

both sides will appear to be scalloped (indented) between the epiphyseal rims

97

What is the name given to the left side appearance of the vertebral body of T5-T8?

the aortic impression

98

What is the aortic impression?

the flattening of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims on the left isde of the vertebral body of T5-T8 which gives the vertebral body a less scalloped or less indented appearance on that side

99

What part of the vertebral body is most influenced by the aorta at T5-T8?

the left side of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

100

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?

the right and left superior and the right and left inferior costal demi-facets

101

Which of the demi-facets on the vertebral body of a typical thoracic is larger?

the superior costal demi-facet

102

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the typical thoracic vertebral body?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

103

What is the appearance and position of the lamina in a typical thoracic?

the lamina is short, broad, and thick and lies next to the spinous process

104

What is the direction of the transverse process in the typical thoracics?

the transverse process projects more posterior with each inferior vertebra

105

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of a typical thoracic?

the transverse tubercle

106

What is the distance between the transverse tubercles in the typical thoracic region?

from T2 each transverse diameter becomes shorter as the transverse processes angle more posterior

107

What is present on the transverse tubercle of a typical thoracic?

the transverse costal facet

108

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets for T2-T6?

they face forward and outward

109

What is the orientation of the transverse costal facets for T7-T8?

they face forward, outward, and upward

110

How can you distinguish between a T2-T4 from T5-T8 segment using the articular process?

at T2-T4 the width between the superior articular processes is greater than the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra
at T5-T8 the width between the superior articular processes is equal to or the same as the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra

111

How do the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T2-T4 region?

the superior articular process transverse diameter is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

112

How do the transverse diameters of the articular processes compare in the T5-T8 region?

the superior articular process transverse diameter is the same as or equal to the inferior articular process transverse diameter for a given segment

113

What is the relationship of the inferior articular process and the lamina?

they blend together

114

What name is given to the region between the superior and inferior articular processes in the typical thoracics?

the pars interarticularis

115

What is the pars interarticularis?

the region between the superior and inferior articular processes

116

What part of a vertebra arises laterally from the pars interarticularis?

the transverse process

117

What part of a vertebra arises medially from the pars interarticularis?

the lamina

118

What is the orientation of the spinous process of a typical thoracic?

they slant backward and downward

119

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T2-T4?

the undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane

120

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T5-T8?

the undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane

121

Which vertebrae will have a spinous process angulation of up to forty degrees?

T2-T4

122

Which vertebra will have a spinous process angulation of up to sixty degrees?

T5-T8

123

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T9?

right and left superior costal demi-facets; right and left inferior costal demi-facets

124

Which synovial joint surfaces may be absent from the vertebral body of T9?

inferior costal demi-facets

125

Which of the demi-facets on the vertebral body of T9 is larger?

the superior costal demi-facet

126

How does the superior costal demi-facet compare in size with those of T2-T8?

it is larger

127

What is the position and direction of the pedicle form the vertebral body at T9?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

128

What is present at the tip of the transverse process?

the transverse tubercle

129

What is present on the transverse tuberlce of T9?

the transverse costal facet

130

Which rib related facet may be absent on T9?

the inferior costal demi-facet

131

What is the orientation of the spinous process of T9?

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

132

What is the angulation of the spinous process of T9?

the undersurface of T9 spinous processes will angle less than forty degrees from the horizontal plane

133

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

134

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T10?

the right and left superior costal facet

135

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T10?

inferior costal demi-facets

136

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body of T10?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

137

What feature is very commonly observed on the lamina of T10?

para-articular processes

138

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T10?

the transverse tubercle

139

What is typically present on the transverse tubercle of T10?

the transverse costal facet

140

What part of the transverse process may be absent on T10?

the transverse costal facet

141

Identify the synovial joint surfaces typically present on T10.

two superior costal facets, two transverse costal facets, two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets

142

What is the orientation of the spinous process of T10?

posterior and slightly inferior, it will shorten and become more horizontal

143

What is the length of the spinous process of T10?

it will shorten significantly from the spinous process of T9

144

What is the generic appearance of the spinous process of T10?

shorter and more horiztonal than the T9 spinous process

145

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

146

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T11 on superior view?

kidney-shaped or reniform

147

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T11?

the right and left superior costal facet

148

Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T11?

inferior costal demi-facets

149

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body at T11?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

150

What is present at the tip of the transverse process of T11?

the transverse tubercle

151

What part of the transverse process is absent on T11?

the transverse costal facet

152

What is the orientation of the spinous process of T11?

posterior and horizontal along the undersurface

153

What is the length of the spinous process of T11?

it will lengthen significantly from the spinous process of T10

154

What is the generic appearance of the spinous process of T11?

longer and more horizontal along the undersurface than T10

155

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

156

What is the outline of the vertebral body of T12 on superior view?

kidney-shaped or reniform

157

What synovial joint surfaces are present on the vertebral body of T12?

the right and left superior costal facet

158

Which synovial joint surfaces is absent from the vertebral body of T11?

inferior costal demi-facets

159

What is the position and direction of the pedicle from the vertebral body at T12?

the pedicle arises from the upper third of the vertebral body and projects posterior

160

What is present at the transverse process region of T12?

three tubercles of variable size

161

Which tubercle on T12 represents the transverse process?

the lateral tubercle

162

What does the lateral tubercle of T12 represent?

the transverse process

163

Which tubercle on T12 represents the mammillary process of the lumbars?

the superior tubercle

164

What does the superior tubercle of T12 represent?

the mammillary process of lumbar vertebrae

165

Which tubercle on T12 represents the accessory process of the lumbars?

the inferior tubercle

166

What does the inferior tubercle of T12 represent?

the accessory process lumbar vertebrae

167

What is the location of the lateral tubercle?

it projects laterally from the pars interarticularis of T12

168

What is the location of the superior tubercle?

it projects superiorly over the superior articular facet from the pars interarticularis of T12

169

What is the location of the inferior tubercle?

it projects from the pars interarticularis of T12 in a plane that is inferior to the superior tubercle and medial to the lateral tubercle

170

Which is the smallest of the tubercles at the transverse process region of T12?

the inferior tubercle

171

What joint surface of the typical thoracic transverse process is absent on T12?

the transverse costal facet

172

What is the curvature of the superior articular facets of a T12?

they are said to be slightly concave

173

What is the curvature of the inferior articular facets of T12?

they are significantly convex

174

What is the orientation of the spinous process of T12?

posterior and horizontal

175

What is the length of the spinous process of T12?

it is similar to the spinous process of T11

176

What is the generic appearance of the spinous process of T12?

lumbar-like, similar in length to T11

177

What is the name of the osseous feature at the tip of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

178

What is the generic size of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

transversely broad

179

What is the generic shape of the typical lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

reniform or kidney-shaped

180

What parts of the vertebra may be used to distinguish L1-L4 from L5?

vertebral body, pedicle, articular process, transverse process, spinous process

181

What characteristics of the L1-L4 vertebral body may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment? Be specific and complete as the differences on a segment from each group.

On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment
At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle, and lamina-pedicle region
In addition, the vertebral body of L5 is more wedge-shaped on lateral view with a much greater anterior height than posterior height

182

The pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of a typical lumbar?

to the upper third of half of the vertebral body

183

What is the distal modification of the transverse process of typical lumbars?

the transverse tubercle

184

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process?

accessory process

185

What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of typical lumbar vertebrae?

pars interarticularis

186

What is the name of the prominent linear elevation in the lumbar spine between superior and inferior articular processes?

pars interarticularis

187

What is characteristic of the L1-L4 articular processes?

the transverse diameter (width between/distance between) superior articular processes of an L1-L4 segment will be greater than the transverse diameter (width between/distance between) the inferior articular processes of that same segment

188

What is the name given to the projection on the lumbar superior articular process?

mammillary process

189

What is the usual condition for typical lumbar spinous process?

they are non-bifid

190

What is the usual appearance of the typical lumbar spinous process?

rectangular with the long axis in the superior-inferior orientation

191

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

192

What is the generic size of the fifth lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

transversely broad

193

What is the generic shape of the fifth lumbar vertebral body from the cranial view?

reniform of kidney-shaped

194

What characteristics of the L1-L4 vertebral body may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segments? Be specific and complete as the differences on a segment from each group.

On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment.
At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle, and lamina-pedicle region.
In addition, the vertebral body of L5 is more wedge-shaped on lateral view with a much greater anterior height than posterior height

195

What characteristic of the L1-L4 pedicle may be used to differentiate it from the L5 segment? Be specific and compete as the differences on a segment from each group.

On cranial view, the lateral surface of the pedicle is apparent on a L1-L4 segment.
At L5 the transverse process originates from the vertebral body, pedicle, and lamina-pedicle region.

196

What is the generic direction and length of the fifth lumbar transverse process?

it is directed straight lateral and is the shortest of all lumbar transverse processes

197

What is the distal modification of the transverse process of the fifth lumbar?

the transverse tubercle

198

What is the name of the elevation near the origin of the lumbar transverse process?

accessory process

199

What is the name of the lamina-pedicle junction of the fifth lumbar vertebrae?

pars interarticularis

200

What is the name of the prominent linear elevation in the lumbar spine between superior and inferior articular process?

pars interarticularis

201

What is the name given to the projection on the superior articular process?

mammillary process

202

What is the usual condition for the fifth lumbar spinous process?

it is non-bifid and short

203

What is the usual appearance of the fifth lumbar spinous process?

rectangular with the long axis int he superior-inferior orientation

204

What is the osseous modification at the distal end of the spinous process?

the spinous tubercle

205

What is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult sacrum?

5 segments

206

An imaginary line drawn along the dorsal midline of sacrum is identified as the ...

median sacral crest

207

What forms the median sacral crest?

fused spinous processes and their spinous tubercles

208

An imaginary line is drawn from the superior articular process of S1 to the sacral cornu will form what feature?

intermediate sacral crest

209

What forms the intermediate sacral crest?

fused articular processes and their facets

210

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

211

What does the sacral cornu represent?

the inferior articular process and facet of S5

212

What is the remnant of the inferior articular process and facet of S5?

the sacral cornu

213

What is the name of the inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal?

the sacral hiatus

214

What is the sacral hiatus?

the inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal which appears as an inverted V

215

An imaginary line drawn from the transverse process of S1 to the inferior lateral sacral angle will form what feature?

lateral sacral crest

216

What forms the lateral sacral crest?

the fused transverse processes and transverse tubercles from S1 to S5

217

What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest:

S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4, and S5

218

What is the sacral tuberosity?

the enlarged transverse tubercle of S2

219

What feature is associated with the transverse tuberlce of S5?

the inferior and lateral (inferolateral) sacral angle

220

From the anterior view, the intervertebral discs of sacrum will be replaced by what feature?

transverse ridges

221

What is the name given to the openings that transmit the ventral sacral nerve rami?

anterior sacral foramina, ventral sacral foramina, or ventral pelvic foramina

222

What feature is identified on the lateral surface of S1-S3?

auricular surface

223

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

the sacral promontory

224

What is the sacral promontory?

the buldging anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1

225

What is the name given to the region of bone extending laterally from the S1 vertebral body looking from the base view?

sacral ala

226

What forms the sacral ala?

the costal element and true transverse process

227

What part of the sacral ala is derived from the costal element?

the anterior two-thirds

228

What part of the sacral ala is derived from the true transverse process?

the posterior third

229

The costal element and true transverse process of sacrum unite to form what feature?

the sacral ala

230

What is the typical number of segments that unite to form the adult coccyx?

4 segments

231

What bony features are present on the coccyx?

all segments are represented by a vertebral body; in addition, Co1 has a coccygeal cornu and transverse process

232

What is the homolog of the superior articular process and facet on Co1?

coccygeal cornu

233

What feature is present at the top of the manubrium sterni?

jugular notch (suprasternal notch)

234

What is the name given to the articular site at the superolateral margin of the maunbrium sterni?

clavicular notch

235

What names are given to the articular sites for the joint with the first and second rib?

costal notch I for the first rib costal cartilage
costal notch II for the second rib costal cartilage

236

How many sternebrae for the corpus sterni?

4 sternabrae

237

What surface feature on the corpus sterni identifies the location of the old synchondroses?

transverse lines

238

What articular sites for the costal cartilage of ribs will be identified on the corpus sterni?

costal notches II-VII

239

What feature of the sorpus sterni is present in 4-7% of the population?

a sternal foramen

240

What are the primary parts of the vertebral end of a typical rib?

the head, neck, and tubercle

241

What feature may be identified on the head of a typical rib?

two articular surfaces and the interarticular crest

242

What names are given to the articular surfaces on the head of a typical rib based on location?

superior articular surface/facet and inferior articular surface/facet

243

What feature of the head of a rib separates the superior form inferior articular surface/facet?

the interarticular crest

244

What features may be identified on the neck of a typical rib?

the crest of the rib

245

What features may be identified on the tubercle of a typical rib?

the articular surface of the tubercle and the non-articular surface of the tubercle

246

Which feature of the tubercle of a typical rib is closer to the head of the rib?

the articular surface of the tubercle

247

Which feature of the tubercle of a typical rib is closer to the shaft of the rib?

the non-articular surface of the tubercle

248

Which feature may be identified on the body (corpus or shaft) of a typical rib?

the costal angle and costal groove

249

What is the costal angle of a rib?

the location on the body (corpus or shaft) of a rib where there is a directional change toward the sternum

250

What is the costal groove of a rib?

the linear depression on the internal and inferior surface of the body (corpus or shaft)

251

What is present on the head of the first rib?

a single articular surfacew

252

What is lacking at the head of the first rib?

the interarticular crest

253

Is there a crest on the neck of the first rib?

not a well-developed one like on the typical rib

254

What features may be identified on the tubercle of the first rib?

the articular surface of the tubercle and the non-articular surface of the tubercle

255

Which feature of the tubercle of the first rib is closer to the head of the rib?

the articular surface of the tubercle

256

Which feature of the tubercle of the first rib is closer to the shaft of the rib?

the non-articular surface of the tubercle

257

What is unique about the body (corpus of shaft) of the first rib?

the body (corpus or shaft) of the first rib is flattened and has a scalene tubercle flanked by the groove for the subclavian artery and the groove for the subclavian vein

258

Which groove on the body (corpus or shaft) of the first rib is close to vertebral end?

the groove for the subclavian artery and the first thoracic nerve

259

Which groove on the body (corpus or shaft) of the first rib is close to the sternal end?

the groove for the subclavian vein

260

Is either the costal angle or costal groove on the first rib?

neither the costal angle nor the costal groove are apparent on the first rib

261

What are the primary parts of the vertebral end of rib 2?

the head, neck, and tubercle

262

What feature may be identified on the head of rib 2?

two articular surfaces and the interarticular crest

263

What names are given to the articular surfaces on the head of rib 2 based on location?

superior articular surface/facet and inferior articular surface/facet

264

What feature of the head of rib 2 separates the superior from inferior articular surface/facet

the interarticular crest

265

What feature may be identified on the neck of rib 2?

the crest of the rib

266

What features may be identified on the tubercle of rib 2?

the articular surface of the tubercle and the non-articular surface of the tubercle

267

Which feature of the tubercle of rib 2 is closer to the head of the rib?

the articular surface of the tubercle

268

Which feature of the tubercle of rib 2 is closer to the shaft of the rib?

the non-articular surface of the tubercle

269

What features may be identified on the body ( corpus or shaft) of rib 2?

the tuberosity for the serratus anterior, the costal angle, and the costal groove

270

What is the costal angle of a rib?

the location on the body (corpus or shaft) of the rib where there is a directional change toward the sternum

271

What is the costal groove of a rib?

the linear depression on the internal and inferior surface of the body (corpus or shaft)

272

What unique feature is present on the body (corpus or shaft) of the second rib?

the tuberosity for the serratus anterior

273

What distinguishes the vertebral end of rib 11 from typical ribs?

the single articular surface, absence of a well-developed crest on the neck and the tubercle may be absent or if present, consists only of a non-articular surface

274

What features may be present on the body (corpus or shaft) of the eleventh rib?

the costal angle and costal groove are under-developed

275

What is the appearance of the sternal end of the eleventh rib?

it is somewhat pointed

276

What helps to distinguish the vertebral end of the twelfth rib from other ribs?

the head has a single articular surface, the crest of hte neck is poorly developed, the tubercle is absent

277

What is the condition of the body (corpus or shaft) of rib 12?

the costal angle and costal groove are absent and it is the shortest of all ribs

278

What is the appearance of the sternal end of the twelfth rib?

the sternal end is pointed