Flashcards in Kant's Moral Argument Deck (42)
where did kant write his moral argument?
in his book called the "critique of pure reason"
when and where was kant born?
1725 in Russia
what implies can?
OUGHT IMPLIES CAN
if we can do something....
we should do it
what is the problem with summum bonum?
may not be achievable in this lifetime - must be achieved in eternity
what must we do to achieve summum bonum?
we must act morally and have the right intentions
what may we strive for?
virtue and happiness
what must there be?
what must the creator have the ability to do?
bring moral worth and power together
what didn't kant regard the MA as?
an argument for the existence of god
what did kant believe about god's existence?
that god's existence could only be established through faith
what did kant say people universally agree?
that some actions are right and wrong no matter what the culture/time
what does the fact that people universally agree show proof of?
of an objective moral law that everyone knows about
aswell as our awareness of the objective moral law, what do we feel towards it?
we feel an obligation towards it, because it's the rational thing to do
what does applying moral reason reveal?
this reveals the moral law and gives us the categorical imperative which we should obey
why is doing duty a good thing?
duty is doing a good thing for no other reason because we know it is our duty
what wouldn't it be if someone acts because they are forced to?
it would not be a virtuous action.
VIRTUE CAN ONLY BE FOR DUTY'S SAKE
what do we expect out of virtuous actions?
happiness, even though we don't always get it
what is it called when virtue and happiness come together?
it is called the summum bonum (greatest good)
because summum bonum cannot be achieved in this world, what is it logical to think?
that there is an afterlife to fulfil the summum bonum
what does kant say would happen if he accepts that there is an objective obligation?
that this then implies belief in the 3 postulates of morality; freedom, immortality and god
what are the 3 postulates of morality?
freedom, immortality and God
an action is moral if one is free to do it
actions aren't always rewarded by happiness, fulfilled in the afterlife
if there is an afterlife then there must be god that connects the virtuous behaviour with the summum bonum
Kant's MA in a nutsell.
1) It is logical for perfect virtue to be rewarded by perfect happiness.
2) humans cannot get the summum bonum without God and an afterlife.
3) God must exist to provide the summum bonum
what did freud say about the way Kant described the conscience? CRITICISM
the conscience as described by Kant is in fact a product of the unconscious mind
how does freud describe the ego?
the conscious self, the personality that everyone sees
how does freud describe the super-ego?
the subconscious set of moral controls given to us by outside influences like the rules of society
what do the ego and the super-ego represent? FREUD
the aspects of psychological activity that represent the moral decision-making mechanisms
what does Freud say about moral values that fails kant's MA? CRITICISM
moral values are not objective, but come from our subconscious or super-ego. kant's ma = failed
what role does the super-ego play in the oedipus complex?
the super-ego is the 'inner parent' which rewards good behaviour and punishes the bad
what is the conscience a result of? FREUD
the conscience is a result of the super-ego
if life's challenges are not resolved - what is caused? FREUD
it causes neuroses. = religion is a neurosis
what does freud argue about morality? STRENGTH
freud argues that morality doesn't come from God, but there is no proof that morality comes from the super-ego
what could be an explanation of the super-ego in humanity? STRENGTH
perhaps god uses the super-ego to give us morality
what is to be said about people having different rules? STRENGTHS
just because different people have slightly different rules doesn't mean these isn't a moral law
because the MA is on of probability not certainty, what can't we know? WEAKNESS
we'll only know if the summum bonum is achieved until after we die
what is there no logical reason for? WEAKNESS
there is no logical reason why our sense of right/wrong comes from God
what doesn't moral behaviour have to be rewarded with? WEAKNESS
what does it mean if having a sense of morality is part of an average life? WEAKNESS
then there is no need for god