Kant's Moral Argument Flashcards Preview

Philosophy > Kant's Moral Argument > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kant's Moral Argument Deck (42)
0

where did kant write his moral argument?

in his book called the "critique of pure reason"

1

when and where was kant born?

1725 in Russia

2

what implies can?

OUGHT IMPLIES CAN

3

if we can do something....

we should do it

4

what is the problem with summum bonum?

may not be achievable in this lifetime - must be achieved in eternity

5

what must we do to achieve summum bonum?

we must act morally and have the right intentions

6

what may we strive for?

virtue and happiness

7

what must there be?

a creator

8

what must the creator have the ability to do?

bring moral worth and power together

9

what didn't kant regard the MA as?

an argument for the existence of god

10

what did kant believe about god's existence?

that god's existence could only be established through faith

11

what did kant say people universally agree?

that some actions are right and wrong no matter what the culture/time

12

what does the fact that people universally agree show proof of?

of an objective moral law that everyone knows about

13

aswell as our awareness of the objective moral law, what do we feel towards it?

we feel an obligation towards it, because it's the rational thing to do

14

what does applying moral reason reveal?

this reveals the moral law and gives us the categorical imperative which we should obey

15

why is doing duty a good thing?

duty is doing a good thing for no other reason because we know it is our duty

16

what wouldn't it be if someone acts because they are forced to?

it would not be a virtuous action.

=

VIRTUE CAN ONLY BE FOR DUTY'S SAKE

17

what do we expect out of virtuous actions?

happiness, even though we don't always get it

18

what is it called when virtue and happiness come together?

it is called the summum bonum (greatest good)

19

because summum bonum cannot be achieved in this world, what is it logical to think?

that there is an afterlife to fulfil the summum bonum

20

what does kant say would happen if he accepts that there is an objective obligation?

that this then implies belief in the 3 postulates of morality; freedom, immortality and god

21

what are the 3 postulates of morality?

freedom, immortality and God

22

freedom

an action is moral if one is free to do it

23

immortality

actions aren't always rewarded by happiness, fulfilled in the afterlife

24

god

if there is an afterlife then there must be god that connects the virtuous behaviour with the summum bonum

25

Kant's MA in a nutsell.

1) It is logical for perfect virtue to be rewarded by perfect happiness.
2) humans cannot get the summum bonum without God and an afterlife.
3) God must exist to provide the summum bonum

26

what did freud say about the way Kant described the conscience? CRITICISM

the conscience as described by Kant is in fact a product of the unconscious mind

27

how does freud describe the ego?

the conscious self, the personality that everyone sees

28

how does freud describe the super-ego?

the subconscious set of moral controls given to us by outside influences like the rules of society

29

what do the ego and the super-ego represent? FREUD

the aspects of psychological activity that represent the moral decision-making mechanisms

30

what does Freud say about moral values that fails kant's MA? CRITICISM

moral values are not objective, but come from our subconscious or super-ego. kant's ma = failed

31

what role does the super-ego play in the oedipus complex?

the super-ego is the 'inner parent' which rewards good behaviour and punishes the bad

32

what is the conscience a result of? FREUD

the conscience is a result of the super-ego

33

if life's challenges are not resolved - what is caused? FREUD

it causes neuroses. = religion is a neurosis

34

what does freud argue about morality? STRENGTH

freud argues that morality doesn't come from God, but there is no proof that morality comes from the super-ego

35

what could be an explanation of the super-ego in humanity? STRENGTH

perhaps god uses the super-ego to give us morality

36

what is to be said about people having different rules? STRENGTHS

just because different people have slightly different rules doesn't mean these isn't a moral law

37

because the MA is on of probability not certainty, what can't we know? WEAKNESS

we'll only know if the summum bonum is achieved until after we die

38

what is there no logical reason for? WEAKNESS

there is no logical reason why our sense of right/wrong comes from God

39

what doesn't moral behaviour have to be rewarded with? WEAKNESS

happiness

40

what does it mean if having a sense of morality is part of an average life? WEAKNESS

then there is no need for god

41

what is there no link between? WEAKNESS

there's no link between god and the afterlife. there could be a natural migration of souls as in hindu reincarnation