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Flashcards in The Cosmological Argument Deck (47)
0

what may the cosmological argument fit with?

scientific evidence

1

what is impossible in kalam arguments?

impossibility of an actual infinity in temporal regress

2

what did aquinas say was impossible?

impossibility of infinite contingency

3

what did william lane craig say regarding the cause of the universe?

universe must have began to exist at a point in time -must be a finite

1. everything has a cause of its existence
2. universe began to exist
3. must have a cause

4

what did quentin smith say?

universe could exist without an efficient cause

5

what is aquinas's 2nd argument?

from causation

6

what was aquinas's first way?

argument from motion

potentiality - actuality

7

what is aquinas's 3rd way?

argument from contingency

8

what are the 3 main points in aquinas's cosmological argument?

1.order
2. necessary being
3. god and his existence

9

what were hume's criticisms of the cosmological argument?

- not everything has to have a cause
- fallacy of composition
- what is the cause of God?
- why does everything have to intelligatable cause?
- wouldn't prove a good theist god

10

where did aquinas present his cosmological argument?

his book - summa theologiae

11

things in the world are in a process of .............. (first way)

motion

12

what is everything that is in motion in a state of? (first way)

changing from potential to actual

13

what can't the same thing be? (first way)

it cannot be potentially and actually the same thing

14

what does it mean if everything is in a state of motion? (first way)

it must have been put there by something else

15

what can you not have within motion? (first way)

a chain of movers that goes on forever

16

what is the conclusion from aquinas's first way?

there must be a first mover, understood to be god

17

what is an efficient cause of itself? (second way)

nothing

18

how to efficient causes follow? (second way)

in order: a first cause causes a second, a second a third and so on.

19

what is it not possible for efficient causes to do? (second way)

go back to infinity

20

what is an efficient cause also?

a necessary cause

21

what is infinite regression?

chain of events that goes backwards forever

22

what is an example of infinite regression?

domino rally

what caused the final domino in the chain to fall? the previous one

23

what is every domino in the chain? (infinite regression)

potentially the cause of the next one falling

24

what is aquinas's 3rd way?

argument from contingency

25

what do all things in nature do? (3rd way)

change

26

what is it possible for things to be/do? (3rd way)

it is possible for these things not to be, then to come into existence, and then cease to exist

27

if the idea of things coming in and out of existence is true - what must there have been at some point?

nothing

28

if there was nothing at one point - what then must there have been?

something necessary to bring contingent things into existence, since nothing can come from nothing

29

what can come from nothing? (3rd way)

nothing

30

what is the necessary being that caused contingent things to come into existence understood to be?

GOD

31

what did hume say regarding cause? CRITICISM

that not everything has to have a cause

32

what did hume say we automatically do with cause and effect?CRITICISM

we put cause and effect together by habit rather than having any evidence that one cause the other

33

what does hume say about the idea of just one cause? CRITICISM

there is nothing to say we can't have more than one cause

34

what does hume question about infinite regress? CRITICISM

as to why the idea of infinite regress is impossible

35

what is hume's fallacy of composition? CRITICISM

is it necessary for the whole universe to have a cause just because everything within could be explained with reference to a cause

36

what did russell and copleston agree on?

a definition of God

' a supreme personal being distinct from the world and creator of the world'

37

who was copleston?

catholic priest

38

who was russell?

athiest

39

what did copleston argue? (3rd way)

that the universe relies on outside things for existence

40

where does copleston say the cause of the universe must be? (3rd way)

outside of the universe

41

what does copleston say the cause of the universe must be? (3rd way)

self causing, a necessary being and existing outside of the universe

42

who is god to copleston? (3rd way)

god is 'his own sufficient cause' - different from a contingent being

43

what did russell reply to copleston saying? (3rd way)

that the concept of cause is made up through observation

44

what does russell say the explanation of the universe is? (3rd way)

beyond human understanding

45

what does russell say it is unnecessary for humans to know? (3rd way)

what happens outside of the universe

46

what does russell say about the cause of the universe? (3rd way)

The universe does not need a cause. It is just there. It just exists. (brute fact)