What is the climate of the majority of Southern France?
What is the greatest climatic challenge Southern France faces?
Lack of rain in the warm, dry climate of Southern France can lead to drought, although the area experiences less pressure from fungal disease.
The rosé wines of Provence are typically made using what method?
Unlike the saignée method which allows for production of both a red and a rosé wine, the direct press method will only produce one pale, rosé wine.
What are some of the major red/black grape varieties used in Provence?
- Cabernet Sauvignon
What are some of the major white grape varieties used in Provence?
- Grenache Blanc
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Ugni Blanc
What is the largest appellation in Provence?
Côtes de Provence AOP
The Côtes de Provence AOP is the largest appellation both in terms of production and geographic size.
What are the sub-denominations of the Provence AOP?
- La Londe
- Sainte Victoire
How many estates are currently entitled to call themselves Crus Classés in Provence?
- Clos Cibonne
- Clos Mireille
- Domaine du Jas d’Esclans
- Domaine de Rimauresq
- Domaine de la Croix
- Domaine du Noyer
- Château de L’Aumérade
- Château de Brégançon
- Château du Galoupet
- Château de Mauvanne
- Château Minuty
- Château de Roubine
- Château Ste. Marguerite
- Château de St. Martin
- Château St. Maur
- Château Ste. Roseline
- Château de Selle
- Château de la Clapière
The finest white wines from Provence are usually based on which two grape varieties?
- Rolle (Vermentino)
Which AOP in Provence is unique in that its production is over 75% white wine?
What is the primary red/black grape of the Bandol AOP?
Mourvèdre's small berries and thick skins give Bandol AOP wines intense color and high tannins.
Mourvèdre is widely planted in Bandol because of the region's south-facing slopes. This aspect gives the grapes enough warmth and sun exposure to fully ripen to produce dark, full-bodied red wines.
What is unique about the phylloxera crisis of the late 1800s in the Languedoc region?
Languedoc was the first region in France replanted with American rootstocks and thus was the first region to be rebuilt after the phylloxera crisis.
What grape variety from the Languedoc is also known as the "lip stinger?"
Picpoul Blanc's naturally high acidity allows the finished wine to be surprisingly high in acid despite the warm conditions of the Languedoc.
What lake separates the Picpoul de Pinet AOP from the Mediterranean Sea?
Étang de Thau
Minervois AOP is known for making what color wines based on what grape variety?
Red blends based on Syrah.
Which subregion of Minervois is considered to produce the best wines of the appellation?
The wines from this subregion are considered so good, Minervois-La Livinière has its own AOP.
Corbières AOP wines are mainly made from what grape variety?
Which AOP of the Languedoc is the largest geographically?
At 13,500 hectares (33,000 acres) Corbières is the fourth largest AOP in France by total area.
In terms of production, which AOP has the largest output of wine in Languedoc-Roussillon?
Corbières AOP accounts for nearly 46% of the AOP-level output of the Languedoc-Roussillon region.
Corbières is subdivided into 11 surbregions. Which is considered the best subregion?
Boutenac, which is its own AOP.
The wines of Malepère AOP must be made from a minimum of 50% what grape?
The Languedoc-Roussillon region produces more of what quality level of wine than any other region in France?
IGP (Indication Géographique Protégée)
The regional appellation of Pays d'Oc covers all the départements which make up Languedoc-Roussillon and is a vital part of the economy in Southern France.
What are the département(s) within Languedoc?
What are the département(s) within Roussillon?
Départements in Languedoc
Département in Roussillon
Which AOP is split between the Languedoc and Roussillon wine regions?
What are the 4 most widely used red/black grape varieties of the Languedoc AOP?
What is Lledoner Pelut?
Lledoner Pelut is a red/black grape mostly grown in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France. It is thought to be a mutation of Grenache Noir.
The most famous wines of Roussillon are mostly what style of wine?
Vins Doux Naturels (VDN)
These are sweet, fortified wines.
What is the climate of Roussillon?
What are the 3 major rivers of the Roussillon region?
There are more of what kind of wine producers in Roussillon than any other region of France?
Roussillon has more organic and biodynamic wine producers than any other wine region in France.
Roussillon's unique climate of warm days, low rainfall, and low disease pressure allow more viticulturists to practice organic and biodynamic farming than in other regions of France.
The Banyuls AOP shares the same grape growing area as what other Roussillon appellation?
Banyuls AOP wines will always be fortified wines while Collioure AOP produces dry table wines.
What is mutage?
Mutage is the addition of a high alcohol spirit to an unfermented must or a fermenting wine in order to prevent or arrest fermentation and create a sweet wine.
Since what year has mutage been practiced in Roussillon?
What appellation in Roussillon is known for producing sweet fortified wines?
Oxidized Vins Doux Naturels that have been aged for at least 5 years may be labelled as what?
Hors d'Age means "beyond age" or "age unknown." This term can also be found on bottles of Cognac.
What are the names for the large glass jars used to age VDNs in Roussillon?
Maury AOP produces what styles of wines?
Maury AOP produces 2 wines made from Grenache Noir:
- dry, red table wines
- red Vin Doux Naturels
Côtes du Roussillon Villages AOP will always be what style of wine?
Still, dry red wines.
What is the name of the wind that has a major affect on the Roussillon winegrowing region?
The Tramontane, which is a strong, dry, cold wind from the north/northwest.
How does the Tramontane impact the Roussillon region?
The Tramontane wind significantly reduces the region's humidity, lowering the risk of fungal infections and rot.
Does the Mistral affect Provence, Languedoc-Roussillon, or both?
The Mistral affects Languedoc-Roussillon as it blows through the Rhône Valley down into these regions.
The Mistral does NOT affect Provence as Provence has prominent hills that protect the region.
What are the similarities and differences between the Mistral and the Tramontane?
In sum, the two winds are very similar but they are channelled differently.
- both are strong, dry, cold winds
- both reduce fungal disease pressure
- both flow out towards the Mediterranean
- Mistral flows through the Rhône Valley between the Alps and the Massif Central;
- Tramontane is funneled between a gap in the Pyrénées and the Massif Central.