Flashcards in Lecture 14: Inequalities And Inequities Deck (29)
Are inequities political?
-measures differences/variations in health
- differences in health experience and outcomes between different population groups - according to SEP, area, age, disability, gender, ethnic group
I.e the social gradient
Define inequities aka "how inequalities came about"
Inequalities which are deemed unfair, or unjust
- health inequities are differences in the distribution of resources/ services across populations which do not reflect health needs
- relations of equal and unequal power
(Political, social and economics as well as justice and injustice)
Why reduce inequalities?
They are unfair, avoidable, they affect everyone and reducing inequities can be cost effective
What is social mobility?
The movement of individuals, families, households or groups of people between social strata
Define intra-generational mobility
Movement up or down the social ladder in an individual's lifetime
Define inter generational mobility
Change in socio-economic position between a parent and child
Define equality of opportunity
Everyone has the same chance of moving up or down the ladder
What does a Lorenz curve measure?
The distribution of wealth in a population. Ie income inequalities.
The more concave= the greater the income inequality in a population
Implications of social inequities?
Less social cohesion
Less trust between groups
Reduced economic productivity
Poorer health outcomes
What are some measures of association/risk?
Risk difference = absolute difference
Risk ratio = relative risk
Is it fair to give everyone the same thing?
No, because it's already unequal to begin with so some need extra help (also think of collective growth)
What is the Gini coefficient?
The ratio of the area between the line of perfect equality and the observed Lorenz curve, to the area between the line of perfect equality and the line of perfect inequality
What is the Gini equation?
0= very equal society
1= very unequal society
Which type of countries have lower social mobility?
Unequal countries (in terms of income)
What is a political right response to inequalities?
"Using examples of best practice it is possible to improve performance of others, and therefore reduce inequities"
What is a left wing response to inequities?
Reducing inequities can be achieved through redistribution of resources according to need
Does the Gini coefficient relate to the Lorenz curve?
What are the steps of drawing the Lorenz curve?
1. Order population from lowest to highest
2. Draw line of absolute equality (45 degrees)
3. Draw line based on available data
4. The more concave, the greater the income inequality in a population
What do inequities in health outcome result from?
Inequities in opportunity
Why are inequalities largely avoidable?
Because it's usually an access issue or unmet need (eg can't afford to go to doctor)
What is the rate difference for no association?
What is the rate difference for negative association?
What is the rate difference for positive association?
What is the rate ratio for no association?
What is the rate ratio for negative association?
What is the rate ratio for positive association?
What is the social gradient?
The montonic trend where as you move through a social determinent eg income, increased health outcomes increase with better welfare