Lecture 24: Epidemiological Research In Action: Obesity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 24: Epidemiological Research In Action: Obesity Deck (76)
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1

What are the four key measures in epidemiological research?

1. Descriptive
2. Predictive
3. Explanatory
4. Evaluative

2

What is descriptive?

Current trends and burdens

3

What is predictive?

Future burden

4

What are explanatory?

1. Changes over time
2. Differences between populations

5

What is evaluative?

The effectiveness of interventions

6

What countries have highest rates of obesity?

Pacific islands, middle eastern, Caribbean

7

Which countries have lowest obesity rates?

Japan
Vietnam
North Korea

8

Are obesity trends predictable?

Yes, often follow state to state etc

9

Which countries have high child obesity rates?

High income countries

10

Describe the childhood obesity trends in low income countries?

They tend to come into the epidemic later, but they rise steeply and often have under-nutrition burden as well

11

What are the stereotypical obesity trends through a populations?

Women then men
Middle-age then children
High SES then low SES
Urban then Rural

12

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and women?

Strong positive

13

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and men?

Positive

14

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and children?

Positive

15

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and women?

Strong negative

16

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and men?

Mainly negative

17

What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and children?

Mainly negative

18

What are some consequences of obesity?

1. Metabolic diseases
2. Mechanical disorders
3. Psychological problems
4. Social consequences

19

What are some metabolic diseases from obesity?

Type 2 diabetes
Cardiovascular diseases
Almost all cancers (esp colon, breast, uterine)
Gallbladder diseases

20

What are some mechanical disorders from obesity?

Arthritis
Back pain
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Skin disorders

21

What are psychological disorders stemming from obesity?

Low self esteem
Reduced quality of life
Depression

22

What are the social consequences of obesity?

Weight bias and discrimination
Reduced life opportunities

23

What relative risk numbers do we take seriously?

2-3 times higher

24

What are the relative risk increases like for obesity as your BMI increases?

As much as 10-20 times if you hit the BMI definition of obesity

25

Is good data important?

YES! You need good monitoring data to see specific trends and details (NZ is bad in this regard- UK is good with monitoring child obesity)

26

What is data important for?

Establishing predictive trends ie working out if it will flatten off etc

27

What are the differences in child obesity depending on deprivation?

Increased obesity in higher deprivation, lower obesity in lower deprivation

28

What are the benefits of monitoring childhood obesity?

1. Can determine prevalence and trends
2. Predict future trends
3. Identify hotspots
4. Contribute to policy and program evaluation
5. Screening and feedback

29

What types of prevalence rates and trends can child obesity monitoring generate?

National, regional and local

30

Why is identify hotspots through childhood obesity important?

We can identify areas with low/decreasing obesity vs priority areas with high/increasing obesity