Flashcards in Lecture 24: Epidemiological Research In Action: Obesity Deck (76)
What are the four key measures in epidemiological research?
What is descriptive?
Current trends and burdens
What is predictive?
What are explanatory?
1. Changes over time
2. Differences between populations
What is evaluative?
The effectiveness of interventions
What countries have highest rates of obesity?
Pacific islands, middle eastern, Caribbean
Which countries have lowest obesity rates?
Are obesity trends predictable?
Yes, often follow state to state etc
Which countries have high child obesity rates?
High income countries
Describe the childhood obesity trends in low income countries?
They tend to come into the epidemic later, but they rise steeply and often have under-nutrition burden as well
What are the stereotypical obesity trends through a populations?
Women then men
Middle-age then children
High SES then low SES
Urban then Rural
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and women?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and men?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in low income countries and children?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and women?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and men?
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity in high income countries and children?
What are some consequences of obesity?
1. Metabolic diseases
2. Mechanical disorders
3. Psychological problems
4. Social consequences
What are some metabolic diseases from obesity?
Type 2 diabetes
Almost all cancers (esp colon, breast, uterine)
What are some mechanical disorders from obesity?
Obstructive sleep apnoea
What are psychological disorders stemming from obesity?
Low self esteem
Reduced quality of life
What are the social consequences of obesity?
Weight bias and discrimination
Reduced life opportunities
What relative risk numbers do we take seriously?
2-3 times higher
What are the relative risk increases like for obesity as your BMI increases?
As much as 10-20 times if you hit the BMI definition of obesity
Is good data important?
YES! You need good monitoring data to see specific trends and details (NZ is bad in this regard- UK is good with monitoring child obesity)
What is data important for?
Establishing predictive trends ie working out if it will flatten off etc
What are the differences in child obesity depending on deprivation?
Increased obesity in higher deprivation, lower obesity in lower deprivation
What are the benefits of monitoring childhood obesity?
1. Can determine prevalence and trends
2. Predict future trends
3. Identify hotspots
4. Contribute to policy and program evaluation
5. Screening and feedback
What types of prevalence rates and trends can child obesity monitoring generate?
National, regional and local