Nephrotic Syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nephrotic Syndrome Deck (101):
1

Nephrotic-range proteinuria is defined as

>3.5g/24hr or UPCr >2g/g

2

Triad of clinical findings associated with nephrotic syndrome arise from

Large urinary losses of protein

3

Triad of clinical findings associated with nephrotic syndrome

1) Hypoalbuminemia (less than 2.5g/dL) 2) Edema 3) Hyperlipidemia (cholesterol >200mg/dL)

4

Without treatment, nephrotic syndrome is associated with a high risk of death, most commonly from

Infections

5

___% of children with nephrotic syndrome respond to corticosteroid therapy

80

6

MC glomerular lesion associated with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

Minimal change disease

7

Underlying abnormality in nephrotic syndrome

Increased permeability of the glomerular capillary wall

8

A highly differentiated epithelial cell located on the outside of the glomerular capillary loop

Podocyte

9

Functions of the podocyte

1) Structural support of the capillary loop 2) Major component of the glomerular filtration barrier to proteins 3) Involved in the synthesis and repair of the GBM

10

MC presenting symptom of children with nephrotic syndrome

Edema

11

Postulates that nephrotic syndrome is associated with primary sodium retention, with subsequent volume expansion and leakage of excess fluid into the interstitium

Overfill hypothesis

12

Postulates that sodium and water retention therefore occur as a consequence of intravascular volume depletion.

Underfill hypothesis

13

Goal of nephrotic syndrome therapy

Gradual reduction of edema with 1) Judicious use of diuretics 2) Sodium restriction 3) Cautious use of albumin infusions

14

Why are children with nephrotic syndrome especially susceptible to infections

1) Hypoglobulinemia as a result of the urinary losses of immunoglobulin (Ig) G 2) Impaired opsonization from urinary loss of complement factors (predominantly C3 and C5)

15

Children with nephrotic syndrome are at significantly increased risk for infection with what kind of bacteria

Encapsulated, particularly pneumococcal

16

Most frequent cause of peritonitis

Pneumococcus

17

Peritoneal leukocyte counts of ____ are highly suggestive of SBP

>250

18

Nephrotic syndrome us a hypercoagulable state resulting from

1) Vascular stasis from hemoconcentration and intravascular depletion 2) Increased platelet number and aggregability 3) Changes in coagulation factor levels (increased production of fibrinogen, urinary losses of antithrombotic factors ATIII and protein S)

19

Clinical risk of hypercoagulable state in children is

2-5%, low compared to adults

20

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Most commonly presents as nephrotic syndrome

MCNS

21

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Least hematuria

MCNS

22

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Asymptomatic proteinuria

MPGN

23

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Most hypertensive

MPGN

24

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Does not progress to renal failure

MCNS

25

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Associated with HIV and heroin use

FSGS

26

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Associated with sickle cell disease

FSGS

27

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Associated with RVT

MN

28

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Associated with partial lipodystrophy

MPGN II

29

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Associated with reflux nephropathy

FSGS

30

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Low complement levels

MPGN I

31

Primary Renal Disease That Manifest as Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: Steroid resistant

MN, MPGN

32

Approx ___% of children with nephrotic syndrome have idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

90

33

Approx 85% of total cases of nephrotic syndrome in children is ___ in pathology

MCNS

34

___% of children with MCD respond to corticosteroid therapy

85

35

FSGS: LM findings

Mesangial cell proliferation and segmental scarring

36

FSGS: IF findings

Positive for IgM and C3

37

FSGS: EM findings

Segmental scarring of the glomerular tuft with obliteration of the glomerular capillary lumen

38

Only ___% of patients with FSGS respond to prednisone

20

39

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is more common in what gender

Males

40

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome appears between the ages of

2 and 6 years

41

MC cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children less than 6 y/o

MCNS

42

MC cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adolescents

FSGS

43

Nephrotic syndrome can initially be misdiagnosed as ___ because of the periorbital swelling that decreases throughout the day

Allergic disorder

44

Important features of minimal change idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

Absence of hypertension and gross hematuria

45

Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome is confirmed by

1) Urinalysis with first morning urine protein:creatinine ratio 2) Serum electrolytes, BUN, Crea, albumin, cholesterol

46

Evaluation to rule out secondary forms of nephrotic syndrome (children >/10 yr)

C3, ANA, dsDNA, Hepatitis B and C, HIV

47

Evaluation for children >/12 yr with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, who are less likely to have MCNS

Kidney biopsy

48

Nephrotic syndrome: UA protein

3+ or 4+

49

Microscopic hematuria is present in ___% of children with nephrotic syndrome

20%

50

Nephrotic syndrome: Spot urine protein:crea ratio

>2

51

Nephrotic syndrome: Serum albumin level

Less than 2.5g/dL

52

Nephrotic syndrome: Serum complement

Normal

53

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is less likely to be MCNS if it occurs at what ages

Less than 1 year or >12 years old

54

Mainstay of therapy of MCNS

Corticosteroids

55

Response to steroids is defined as

Attainment of remission within the initial 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy

56

MCNS: Remission consists of

UPCr <0.2 or <1+ protein on dipstick for 3 consecutive days

57

MCNS: Vast majority of children who respond to prednisone therapy do so within

First 5 weeks of treatment

58

Nephrotic syndrome: Indication for admission

Severe symptomatic edema (Large pleural eff, ascites, or severe genital edema)

59

Sodium restriction

<1500mg/day

60

Management of hyponatremia in children with nephrotic syndrome

Fluid restriction

61

Management of swollen scrotum in nephrotic syndrome

Elevated with pillows to enhance fluid removal by gravity

62

Indications for administration of IV albumin in children with nephrotic syndrome

Severe generalized edema with evidence of intravascular volume depletion (hemoconcentration, hypotension, tachycardia, etc)

63

Nephrotic syndrome: Albumin is administered at what dose

0.5-1.0g/kg) followed by furosemide (1-2mkdose IV)

64

Potential complications of parenteral albumin therapy

1) Volume overload 2) Hypertension 3) Heart failure 4) Pulmonary edema

65

Nephrotic syndrome: Management of dyslipidemia

1) Limit dietary fat intake to <30% of calories 2) Limit saturated fat intake to <10% of calories 3) Limit dietary cholesterol intake to <300mg/day

66

Nephrotic syndrome: Empiric antibiotic therapy should be broad enough to cover

1) Pneumococcus 2) G- bacteria (3rd gen cephalosporin is a common choice)

67

Nephrotic syndrome: Management of thromboembolism

1) Imaging studies to confirm presence of a clot 2) Studies to delineate a specific underlying hypercoagulable state 3) Heparin, LMWH, or Warfarin

68

Nephrotic syndrome: Relapse is defined as

1) UPCr >2 or 2) >/3+ protein on urine dipstick testing for 3 consecutive days

69

Nephrotic syndrome: Relapses are common, especially in younger children and are often triggered by

URTI or GI infections

70

Nephrotic syndrome: How are relapses treated

Usually in a similar manner to the initial episode except that daily prednisone courses are shortened

71

Nephrotic syndrome: Steroid resistance is defined as

Failure to achieve remission after 8 weeks of corticosteroid therapy

72

SRNS further eval includes

1) Kidney biopsy 2) KFT 3) Quantitation of urine protein excretion on top of urine dipstick testing

73

SRNS is usually caused by

FSGS in 80% of cases, MCNS, or MPGN

74

SRNS, specifically FSGS, is associated with a ___% risk for end-stage kidney disease within 5 years of diagnosis if patients do not achieve a partial or complete remission

50

75

Reduces the number of relapses in children with frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

Cyclophosphamide therapy

76

Potential side effects of Cyclophosphamide therapy

1) Neutropenia 2) Disseminated varicella 3) Hemorrhagic cystitis 4) Alopecia 5) Sterility 6) Increased risk of future malignancy

77

During cyclophosphamide therapy, what blood parameter should be monitored weekly?

WBC count, if below 5,000/mm3, withhold drug

78

Cumulative threshold of Cyclophosphamide above which oligospermia or azoospermia occurs in boys is

>250mg/kg

79

Recommended as initial therapy for children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

Calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine or tacrolimus)

80

Side effects of calcineurin inhibitors

1) Hypertension 2) Nephrotoxicity 3) Hirsutism 4) Gingival hyperplasia

81

An antihelmintic agent with immunomodulating effects that has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse in comparison to prednisone

Levamisole

82

Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against ___

CD20

83

___ and ___ may be helpful as adjunct therapy to reduce proteinuria in steroid-resistant patients

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers

84

Live vaccination should be deferred until prednisone dose is

Either below 1mkday or 2mkday on alternate days

85

T/F Live virus vaccines are contraindicated in children receiving corticosteroid- sparing agents such as cyclophosphamide or cyclosporine

T

86

Guideline for children on immunosuppresives following close contact with varicella infection

VZ immune globulin

87

T/F Most children with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome have repeated relapses

T

88

T/F Relapses in children with steroid-responsive NS decrease in frequency as the child grows older

T

89

Children with nephrotic syndrome with these characteristics are likely to follow an infrequently relapsing course

Children who respond rapidly to steroids and those who have no relapses during the first 6 mo after diagnosis

90

Infectious agents associated with nephrotic syndrome

1) Malaria 2) Schistosomiasis 3) Hepatitis B 4) Hepatitis C 5) Filaria 6) Leprosy 7) HIV

91

Proposed mechanism of nephrotic syndrome in lymphoma

Lymphoma produces a lymphokine that increases permeability of the glomerular capillary wall

92

Drugs associated with Membranous glomerulopathy

Penicillamine, captopril, gold, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, mercury compounds

93

Drugs associated with MCNS

Probenecid, ethosuximide, methimazole, lithium

94

Drugs associated with Proliferative GN

Procainamide, chlorpropamide, phenytoin, trimethadione, paramethadione

95

Congenital nephrotic syndrome is defined as

Nephrotic syndrome manifesting at birth or within the 1st 3 mo of life

96

Caused by mutations in the WT1 gene, which results in abnormal podocyte function

Denys-Drash syndrome

97

Manifestations of Denys-Drash syndrome

1) Early-onset nephrotic syndrome 2) Progressive renal insufficiency 3) Ambiguous genitalia 4) Wilms tumor

98

Syndrome caused by mutation in LAMB2 gene, leading to abnormalities in β2-laminin, a critical component of glomerular and ocular basement membranes.

Pierson syndrome

99

Congenital nephrotic syndrome presenting with bilateral microcoria (fixed narrowing of the pupil)

Pierson syndrome

100

T/F Secondary congenital nephrotic syndrome can resolve with treatment of the underlying cause

T

101

Definitive treatment of congenital nephrotic syndrome

Renal transplantation