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Flashcards in normal curvatures Deck (18):
1

what embryonic event causes the direction of the posterior curve of the vertebral column?

embryonic disc will undergo flexion in a cranial to caudal direction

2

why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?

it is the first curve to appear embryologically

3

what are the adult remnants of the primary curve along the vertebral column?

thoracic or dorsal curve and the pelvic or sacroccygeal curve

4

what are the names given to curves that form during development to reverse the direction of regions along the vertebral column?

anterior curve, secondary curve, compensatory curve

5

what are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?

cervical curve and lumbar curve

6

what segmental levels form the cervical curve?

C2-T1

7

what segmental levels form the lumbar curve?

T12 to L5

8

what is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?

third fetal month

9

what is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

during the last trimester in utero

10

what is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?

within the first year after birth

11

what developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

12

at what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?

usually between the third and fourth month after birth

13

what is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

the righting reflex

14

what is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?

typically between C4 and C5

15

what is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

between occiput and C1

16

what is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?

cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1

17

what is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

between 12 and 18 months after birth

18

what infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?

crawling and walking