READ ME / 1: Acute alcohol intoxication Flashcards Preview

CLASP: Alcohol 2017/18 > READ ME / 1: Acute alcohol intoxication > Flashcards

Flashcards in READ ME / 1: Acute alcohol intoxication Deck (60)
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31

Alcohol concentration peaks ___ hour after consumption.

one

32

Because blood concentration of alcohol decreases linearly, what shouldn't you do the morning after heavy drinking?

Drive

33

Certain ethnic groups have reduced levels of which enzyme?

Which groups?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Aborigines, eskimos etc.

34

Why do some people flush and feel sick after drinking alcohol?

Low levels of ALDEHYDE dehydrogenase - acetaldehyde is unpleasant and toxic

35

Which drugs, used to manage chronic alcoholism, cause flushing and nausea in people who then drink alcohol?

Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors

e.g disulfiram (Antabuse)

36

Why do you achieve a higher alcohol tolerance the more alcohol you drink?

Alcohol dehydrogenase activity UPREGULATED

37

Which alternate pathway of alcohol metabolism is activated in chronic drinkers?

Which family of proteins does it require?

MEOS pathway

Cytochrome P450 family

38

What is one of the biggest risk factors for head and neck cancers?

Alcoholism

39

Which three biochemical processes are impaired by chronic alcoholism?

Gluconeogenesis

Kreb's Cycle

Fatty acid oxidation

40

Why may you get sore after a night of heavy drinking?

Kreb's Cycle inhibited

Switch to anaerobic metabolism

Production of lactic acid

41

Which two processes start in the liver when blood glucose is low during a night of heavy drinking?

Gluconeogenesis

Glycogenolysis

using fat, proteins etc.

42

Why do you get the munchies after a night of heavy drinking?

Hypoglycaemia

43

People with which condition should be careful when heavy drinking?

Diabetes

44

Why does drinking alcohol make you gain weight?

Fatty acid oxidation impaired

Excess lipid synthesis

Plus the alcohol contains loads of calories anyway

45

Both alcoholic and diabetic ketoacidosis involve a metabolic acidosis due to the buildup of ketones in the blood. What is the thing differentiating these two diseases?

Diabetic ketoacidosis hyperglycaemia

Alcoholic ketoacidosis - little/no hyperglycaemia

46

Alcohol is a CNS (stimulant / depressant).

depressant

47

The level of which neurotransmitter is increased by alcohol consumption?

GABA

48

The CNS effects of alcohol consumption are __-dependent.

dose

49

Why is unconsciousness dangerous in someone who is acute intoxicated?

Swallowing impaired

Vomiting

Aspiration pneumonia (brush up on lung lobes)

50

Why else may you die while acutely intoxicated?

Trauma (misadventure, falls, fighting etc.)

Vomiting (metabolic alkalosis, Mallory-Weiss tear, Boerhavve syndrome (gastric tear), acute pancreatitis)

 

51

Does alcohol make you pee more?

Yes

52

Why does alcohol make you pee more?

Sheer volume consumed

53

Which hormone, responsible for water reabsorption, is inhibited by alcohol?

ADH / Vasopressin

54

What is the result of the inhibition of ADH by alcohol?

Reduced water reabsorption

Higher volume of less concentrated urine

55

Why does acute intoxication give you the sensation of a heavy heartbeat?

Negative inotrope (reduced contractility)

So heart rate increases to maintain cardiac output

56

Binge drinking of alcohol can cause a spontaneous supraventricular tachycardia - what is this condition called?

Holiday heart syndrome

57

What are the factors contributing to headache after drinking alcohol?

Congeners - i.e the substances used to make alcohol smell a certain way

Serotonin

Dehydration

Acetic acid

58

Apart from chemicals in alcohol, what contributes to a hangover after acute intoxication?

Dehydration

59

Any drug which inhibits ____ may see some use as a hangover cure.

prostaglandins

60

Why do some people who drink alcohol have heartburn the next morning?

Alcohol is a smooth muscle relaxant

> inhibition of lower oesophageal sphincter (also snoring), gastric acid irritates oesophageal mucosa