Regions of the Vertebral Column: Sacrum and Coccyx Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Regions of the Vertebral Column: Sacrum and Coccyx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regions of the Vertebral Column: Sacrum and Coccyx Deck (41):
1

What is the position of the sacral zygapophysis in adults?

The zygapophysis lies in the coronal plane for L5/S1

2

What is the orientation of the first sacral superior articular facet?

Backward, upward, medial (BUM); typically concave

3

From the anterior view, the intervetebral discs of sacrum will be replaced by what feature?

Transverse ridges

4

What forms the median sacral crest?

Fused spinous processes and their spinous tubercles

5

What forms the intermediate sacral crest?

Fused articular processes and their facets

6

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

The mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

7

What is the sacral hiatus?

The inferior opening of the sacral spinal canal

8

An imaginary line drawn from the transverse process of S1 to the inferior lateral sacral angle will form what feature?

The lateral sacral crest

9

What is the sacral tubersoity?

The enlarges transverse tubercle of S2

10

What is the name of the joint formed by the sacral tuberosity?

the accessory sacro-iliac joint

11

What feature is associated with the transverse tubercle of S5?

The inferior and lateral (inferolateral) sacral angle

12

What feature is identified on the lateral surface of S1-S3?

Auricular surface

13

What is the sacral promontory?

The bulging anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1

14

How many synovial joints are typically present at sacrum?

Four

15

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)

16

What forms the posterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Sacral cocrnu, coccygeal cornu, superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament and intercornual ligament

17

What forms the anterior boundary for the fifth sacral spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Vertebral body S5, vertebral body Co1, deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament and intervertebral disc

18

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

19

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

20

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

21

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

The union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

22

What ligament is formed by the union of ht esuperficial posterior sacrococcygeal and the deep poseterior sacrococcygeal ligaments at Co1?

The posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

23

What ligament divides the sciatic foramen into the greater and lesser sciatic foramina?

Sacrospinous ligament

24

Which ligament represents a thickening of the fibrous capsule of the sacro-iliac joint?

Anterior sacro-iliac ligament

25

Which ligament is the strongest of the sacro-iliac ligaments and is penetrated by dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nerves?

Interosseous sacro-iliac ligament

26

Which ligament will attach the intermediate sacral crest of S1, lateral sacral crest of S2 to the posterior superior iliac spine?

Short posterior sacro-iliac ligament

27

Which ligament attaches the lateral sacral crest of S3 and S4 to the posterior superior iliac spine?

Long posterior sacro-iliac ligament

28

What is the homolog for the inferior articular process and facet at S5?

Sacral cornu

29

What is the homolog for the superior articular process and facet at Co1?

Coccygeal cornu

30

What is the homolog for the capsular ligament at S5?

Intercornual ligament

31

What is the number of coccygeal somites?

Ten

32

What is the typical number of segments which unite to form the adult coccyx?

4 segments

33

When is ossification of coccyx completed?

About age 30

34

What is the direction of fusion of coccygeal segments?

From caudal to cranial, the last segments to fuse together are Co1 and Co2

35

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

Posterior (kyphotic)

36

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

Flexion-extensionn, 5-20 degrees

37

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the fetus?

Typically 5 pairs of coccygeal nerves are present

38

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

Typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult

39

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5, and Co1 nerves

40

What is the ganglion impar?

A midline sympathetic ganglion

41

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

An enlarged encapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx

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