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Flashcards in Revision 2 Deck (198)
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91

causative organism:
pregnant lady presents with signs of meningism
culture reveals gram +ve flagellate rods

listeria
(tends to affect young babies, elderly and pregnancy women)

92

how is listeria meningitis treated

amoxicillin

93

Causative organism:
18 y/o uni student presents with stiff neck, photophobia and fever
cultures reveal a gram -ve diplococcus

neisseria meningitidis

94

what is the excitatory neurotransmitter

glutamate

95

what is the inhibitory neurotransmitter

gaba/glycine

96

name two opioid antagonists

naloxone and naltrexone

97

what are alpha and delta nerve fibres

mechanical/ thermal nociceptors that are thinly myelinated (first response- sharp pain)

98

what are C fibres

unmyelinated
are second response- throbbing pain

99

what is the role of astrocytes

maintain BBB

100

what is the role of oligodendrocytes

myelination of CNS

101

what is the role of schwann cells

myelination of PNS

102

what is the role of ependymal cells

CSF regulation

103

what is the role of microglia

phagocytes

104

what is the role of the inf and sup articular processes on vertebrae

mobilise with adjacent vertebrae via synovial facet joints

105

where on a vertebrae does the rib articulate

transverse processes

106

where do the anterior and posterior rami supply

anterior- anterolateral body wall
posterior- posterior body wall

107

is the anterior or posterior rami bigger

anterior

108

which part of the grey matter butterfly gives of anterior roots

top wings

109

name the ascending tracts

dorsal column- fasiculus gracilis and cuneatus
dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract
fasciculus proprius
spinothalamic and spinoreticular tract

110

name the descending tracts

medial longitudinal fasciculus
lissauers tract
lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts
rubrospinal tract
pontine reticulospinal tract
meduallry reticulospinal tract
lateral vestibulospinal tract
tectospinal tract

111

summaries the DCML

fine touch
conscious proprioception
fibres cross in the medulla

112

summarise the spinothalamic tract

pain, temperature, deep pressure
fibres cross segmentally

113

summarise the corticospinal tract

fine precise movement, particularly of distal limb muscles
forms on the medulla - pyramidal tract
85% of fibres cross in the caudal medulla at the decussation of the pyramids

114

where is the primary somatosensory cortex

post central gyrus in the temporal lobe

115

where is the primary motor cortex

pre central gyrus, frontal lobe

116

where is the lesion in decoricate posturing

(flexor)
cervical spinal tract/ cerebral hemisphere
rubrospinal tract dominant
(decorate things red at christmas)

117

where is the lesion in decerebrate posturing

(extensor)
midbrain/ pons
vestibulospinal tract prominant

118

from medial to laterla in the primary motor cortex, list the parts of body controlled by each bit of brain

foot
hip
trunk
arm
hand
face
tongue
larynx

119

what is the role of the basal ganglia

modulates motor control

120

what makes up the basal gamglia

caudate
putamen
globus pallidus
subthalamic nucleus
substantia nigra