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Flashcards in Skin Cancer Deck (54)
1

What are the 2 main groups of skin cancers?

Melanoma
Non-melanoma

2

What are the 2 main non-melanoma skin cancers?

Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma

3

Non-melanoma skin cancers arise from which skin cells?

Keratinocytes

4

Melanoma skin cancers arise from keratinocytes. True/False?

False
Arise from melanocytes

5

Melanoma is the fastest increasing cancer in Scotland. True/False?

True

6

Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma. True/False?

False

7

Melanoma is the most common cancer in 15-24 yr olds. True/False?

True

8

Melanoma is 2x more common in which sex?

Females

9

What determines prognosis in melanoma?

Depth of the melanoma

10

What is the % survival for melanoma lesions less than 1mm over 5 years?

95-100%

11

Thinner melanomas have better prognosis than thicker ones. True/False?

True

12

What is the ABCDE approach to diagnosing melanoma?

Asymmetry
Borders
Colour
Diameter
Evolution

13

If a mole is fast-growing and very dark black, it is not worrying. True/False?

False

14

Basal cell carcinomas are fast-growing. True/False?

False
Slow-growing due to poor blood supply

15

Are basal cell carcinomas usually painful?

No

16

Describe the appearance of basal cell carcinoma

Pearly/translucent lump
Aborising blood vessels
Central ulceration

17

What is the most common cause of squamous cell carcinoma?

Sun-damaged skin

18

Squamous cell carcinoma is fast-growing. True/False?

True
Relatively fast compared to BCC

19

Both basal and squamous cell carcinomas are likely to metastasise. True/False?

False
Basal cell carcinoma is localised

20

Describe the appearance of squamous cell carcinoma

Hyperkeratotic lump/ulcer
May be painful/bleed

21

Name 2 precursor lesions that can lead to squamous cell carcinoma

Bowen's disease
Actinic keratosis

22

How do actinic keratoses arise?

Sun damage
High risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma

23

Describe Bowen's disease

Erythematous plaque - very early form of squamous cell carcinoma that is easily treated

24

List risk factors for skin cancer

Sun exposure
Genetics
Immunosuppression
Environmental carcinogens

25

Describe skin type I

Always burns, never tans

26

Describe skin type II

Usually burns, can tan

27

Describe skin type III

Usually tans, can burn

28

Describe skin type IV

Always tans, never burns

29

Describe skin type V

Brown skin

30

Describe skin type VI

Black skin

31

List 3 genetic diseases that increase risk of skin cancer

Xeroderma pigmentosum
Albinism
Naevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin's syndrome)

32

What is xeroderma pigmentosum?

Photosensitivity disease where skin cancer can occur on UV-exposed sites
Defect in NER genes

33

What is Gorlin's syndrome?

Autosomal dominant disease featuring multiple basal cell carcinomas

34

Which UV radiation is the most lethal - UVA, UVB or UVC?

UVC
Then UVB then UVA

35

What blocks out UVC radiation so that we are never exposed to it?

Ozone layer

36

What protects us from UVB radiation?

Window glass
Some sunscreen

37

What is the effect of UV radiation upon DNA?

Damages DNA and causes mutations

38

What is the signature DNA mutation of UV radiation?

Pyrimidine dimer mutation

39

Skin type I individuals have which type of melanin instead of eumelanin which doesn't absorb UVR effectively?

Pheomelanin

40

MC1R protein determines balance of pigment in skin and hair. What would 1 or 2 mutations in the MC1R gene cause respectively?

1 mutation causes freckling
2 mutations causes freckling and red hair

41

What is the scientific name for freckles?

Ephilides

42

What do freckles represent?

Patchy increase in melanin pigmentation, usually due to UV exposure

43

What are actinic lentigines?

"Age/liver spots" caused by UV exposure

44

What is a naevus?

Birthmark/mole on the skin

45

Naevi can develop into melanoma.. True/False?

True

46

How do acquired naevi develop?

At infancy, melanocyte:keratinocyte ratio breaks down, allowing formation of simple benign naevi

47

Where are melanocytes in a junctional naevus?

At the DEJ

48

Where are melanocytes in a compound naevus?

DEJ + dermis

49

Where are melanocytes in a intradermal naevus?

Dermis

50

What size are dysplastic naevi?

Generally greater than 6mm

51

List the 4 main types of melanoma

Superficial spreading
Acral/mucosal lentiginous
Lentigo maligna
Nodular

52

How do superficial spreading, acral/mucosal lentiginous and lentigo maligna melanoma differ from nodular melanoma, in terms of growth?

SSM, A/MLM and LMM grow as flat lesions in epidermis before vertically invading; NM vertically grows from the outset

53

What is the most common subtype of melanoma? Where is it found?

Superficial spreading
Trunk or legs

54

Describe seborrhoeic keratosis

Greasy, stuck-on appearance common on face and trunk
Hyperkeratotic