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Flashcards in Urticaria Deck (41)
1

Name the term that means "increased thickness of keratin layer"

Hyperkeratosis

2

Name the term that means "increased turnover of keratinocytes/persistence of keratin nuclei"

Parakeratosis

3

Name the term that means "increased thickness of epithelium"

Acanthosis

4

Define "papillomatosis" and name a condition it is present in

Irregular epithelial thickening
Acanthosis nigricans

5

Define "spongiosis"

Oedema between keratinocytes

6

In psoriasis, what is the basic pathology that is occuring?

Parakeratosis in the corneal layer

7

What is meant by the Koebner phenomenon?

Trauma to a site of the body can stimulate skin lesions in that particular area

8

Neutrophils are present in the corneal layer in psoriasis. True/False?

True
Unusual but true

9

What is Auspitz sign in psoriasis?

Bleeding spots when psoriasis scales are scraped off

10

Where does acne vulgaris tend to affect?

Sites of high sebaceous gland concn
(face, neck, upper back, chest)

11

How does sebum, produced by sebaceous glands, lead to acne?

Sebum builds up in the hair follicle, increasing pressure to cause rupture

12

What are comedones?

Keratin and sebum build up in hair follicles, producing whiteheads and blackheads

13

Rosacea is commoner in males. True/False?

False
Commoner in females

14

What are the facial features of rosacea?

Flushing
Visible blood vessels
Pustules
Thickened skin (rhinophyma)

15

List some triggers of rosacea

Alcohol
Sunlight
Spicy food
Stress

16

Which mites are often present in rosacea?

Demodex mites

17

Name 3 examples of immunobullous diseases

Pemphigus
Bullous pemphigoid
Dermatitis herpetiformis

18

What is the most common subtype of pemphigus?

Pemphigus vulgaris

19

Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune condition. What happens?

IgG antibodies made in response to desmoglein 3 - this is the glue that maintains desmosomal attachments

20

In bullous pemphigoid, where does the blistering develop?

Underneath the epidermis

21

Acantholysis (loss of desmosomal attachments in epidermis) occurs in bullous pemphigoid. True/False?

False

22

Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune condition. What happens?

IgG produces antibodies against hemidesmosomes
Causes epidermis to separate from basement membrane (at the DEJ)

23

Dermatitis herpetiformis is linked to which GI disease?

Coeliac disease

24

How is dermatitis herpetiformis produced in coeliac patients?

IgA against wheat cross-reacts against connective tissue matrix proteins

25

What is the commonest form of psoriasis?

Chronic plaque psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris)

26

Psoriasis is symmetrical and usually affects flexor surfaces. True/False?

False
Symmetrical and affect extensor surfaces

27

List treatment for psoriasis

Vitamin D analogue
Coal tar
Steroid ointment
Phototherapy

28

Give examples of vitamin D analogues

Calcipotrol (Dovonex)
Calcitrol (Silkis)

29

What is the basic function of retinoids in psoriasis?

Reduces skin turnover (reduces parakeratosis)

30

Which organism can colonise the hair follicle duct, causing acnes?

Propionibacterium acnes

31

Open comedones are called blackheads/whiteheads
Closed comedones are called blackheads/whiteheads

Open comedones are called blackheads, closed comedones are called whiteheads

32

List topical treatment for acne

Benzoyl peroxide
Adapalene
Topical antibiotic

33

What does benzoyl peroxide do?

Keratolytic + antibacterial

34

What type of drug is adapalene?

Topical retinoid (dries skin)

35

Name an oral retinoid that can be used for systemic treatment of acne

Isotretinoin

36

Comedones are present in rosacea. True/False?

False

37

Outline treatment for rosacea

Reduce triggers
Topical metronidazole
Low dose isotretinoin if severe

38

Bullous pemphigoid is a deep blister; pemphigus is a superficial blister. True/False?

True
BP goes through DEJ; pemphigus is intra-epidermal between keratinocytes

39

What is Nikolsky sign?

Top layers of the skin slip away from the lower layers when slightly rubbed; i.e., popped blister

40

Which disease - bullous pemphigoid or pemphigus vulgaris - is Nikolsky positive?

Pemphigus vulgaris

41

Outline treatment for pemphigus and pemphigoid

Steroid
Immunosuppressive
Tetracyline in pemphigus