Flashcards in Urticaria Deck (41)
Name the term that means "increased thickness of keratin layer"
Name the term that means "increased turnover of keratinocytes/persistence of keratin nuclei"
Name the term that means "increased thickness of epithelium"
Define "papillomatosis" and name a condition it is present in
Irregular epithelial thickening
Oedema between keratinocytes
In psoriasis, what is the basic pathology that is occuring?
Parakeratosis in the corneal layer
What is meant by the Koebner phenomenon?
Trauma to a site of the body can stimulate skin lesions in that particular area
Neutrophils are present in the corneal layer in psoriasis. True/False?
Unusual but true
What is Auspitz sign in psoriasis?
Bleeding spots when psoriasis scales are scraped off
Where does acne vulgaris tend to affect?
Sites of high sebaceous gland concn
(face, neck, upper back, chest)
How does sebum, produced by sebaceous glands, lead to acne?
Sebum builds up in the hair follicle, increasing pressure to cause rupture
What are comedones?
Keratin and sebum build up in hair follicles, producing whiteheads and blackheads
Rosacea is commoner in males. True/False?
Commoner in females
What are the facial features of rosacea?
Visible blood vessels
Thickened skin (rhinophyma)
List some triggers of rosacea
Which mites are often present in rosacea?
Name 3 examples of immunobullous diseases
What is the most common subtype of pemphigus?
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune condition. What happens?
IgG antibodies made in response to desmoglein 3 - this is the glue that maintains desmosomal attachments
In bullous pemphigoid, where does the blistering develop?
Underneath the epidermis
Acantholysis (loss of desmosomal attachments in epidermis) occurs in bullous pemphigoid. True/False?
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune condition. What happens?
IgG produces antibodies against hemidesmosomes
Causes epidermis to separate from basement membrane (at the DEJ)
Dermatitis herpetiformis is linked to which GI disease?
How is dermatitis herpetiformis produced in coeliac patients?
IgA against wheat cross-reacts against connective tissue matrix proteins
What is the commonest form of psoriasis?
Chronic plaque psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris)
Psoriasis is symmetrical and usually affects flexor surfaces. True/False?
Symmetrical and affect extensor surfaces
List treatment for psoriasis
Vitamin D analogue
Give examples of vitamin D analogues
What is the basic function of retinoids in psoriasis?
Reduces skin turnover (reduces parakeratosis)
Which organism can colonise the hair follicle duct, causing acnes?
Open comedones are called blackheads/whiteheads
Closed comedones are called blackheads/whiteheads
Open comedones are called blackheads, closed comedones are called whiteheads
List topical treatment for acne
What does benzoyl peroxide do?
Keratolytic + antibacterial
What type of drug is adapalene?
Topical retinoid (dries skin)
Name an oral retinoid that can be used for systemic treatment of acne
Comedones are present in rosacea. True/False?
Outline treatment for rosacea
Low dose isotretinoin if severe
Bullous pemphigoid is a deep blister; pemphigus is a superficial blister. True/False?
BP goes through DEJ; pemphigus is intra-epidermal between keratinocytes
What is Nikolsky sign?
Top layers of the skin slip away from the lower layers when slightly rubbed; i.e., popped blister
Which disease - bullous pemphigoid or pemphigus vulgaris - is Nikolsky positive?