Personality and Individual Differences > TAKS 7 - PERSON-SITUATION DEBATE > Flashcards

Flashcards in TAKS 7 - PERSON-SITUATION DEBATE Deck (17)


= behaviour is determined in large parts by a person’s general traits
- between-person variance
- science of traits
- person as central cause of behaviour
- similarity across behaviours
- personality traits exist



= immediate situation is primary determinant of behaviour;
- within-person variability (= perceive situation and react to them)
- science that explains behaviour variation across occasions
- variable behaviours of same person across situations
- traits do not exist, personality might



= situations is primary cause but personality determines our reaction to the situation
- personality = differences between individuals in how they react to situations


person position
- results

= useful for trends/average behaviours
- traits predict/describe behaviour well over long stretches of time
- behaviour is highly stable
- trait approach is needed to explain differences between people


situation position
- results

= useful for momentary behaviour
- traits do not predict/describe behaviour very strongly
- typical individual’s behaviour is highly variable


whole trait model

= social-cognitive model of personality; combines evidence for individual differences in average global traits with evidence that people also vary substantially around these averages
- people are constantly shifting in response to events in their lives --> shifts are not entirely random, nor patterns emerging


personality fluctuation and emotional fluctuations

- all Big Five showed strong associations with affect at the within-person level (trait level not state level)
- extraversion + neuroticism: strongly related to affect
--> extraversion: being in positive mood, being more extraverted; being more happier when acting extraverted
--> neuroticism: being more in a negative mood, being more neurotic/moody/anxious


state level

= temporary states, moods; short-term variation in personality construct
- state-level association: people may not experience more positive affect when they are being more sociable; your mood/temporary state affects behaviour
- shifts in response to environmental/ internal events that initiate processes of interpretation


trait level

= generalised, personalised characteristics, stable modes of individual’s adjustment to environment.
- Big Five: principal dimensions of personality along which people differ at trait level
- trait-level association: people who are more sociable may also experience more positive affect; trait affects behaviour
- best conceptualised as density distributions of momentary states


density distributions approach

= frequency of a trait is demonstrated in a graph; see how dense the distribution of the trait is represented


approach vs. avoidance orientation

= explain how work episodes relate to personality states (both result in changes in personality states)
1) approach orientation = motive to promote/sustain desired physical/psychological stimuli --> motivation to achieve status enhancement, affiliation, altruism or learning
- conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, openness
2) avoidance orientation = motive to prevent/reduce negative stimuli --> creates vigilance to threat, resulting in negative affect/withdrawal
- heightened state neuroticism, tendencies towards negative affect, disengagement and volatility


personality-situation transactions

= how personality traits influence what kinds of situations we choose + create in the first place
- environments/momentary situations covary with people’s personality dispositions --> situations are created so existing behavioural disposition can be lived out


personality-situation transactions
- neuroticism

- HIGH = more frequently worries, greater emotional instability, more frequent/intense negative affect
- young adults: report negative affect, behaviour was judged as insecure and anxious, preferred solitude
--> being alone and more often doing chores


personality-situation transactions
- extraversion

- HIGH = frequently seeking and enjoying social interactions
- young adults: often in social situations and conversations, behaviour judged as talkative/confident/active, engage in social leisure activities
--> often being with friends


personality-situation transactions
- openness

- HIGH = enjoying intellectual activities and new experiences in variety of domains
- young adults: behaviour judged as intellectual, engage in cultural leisure activities, preference for solitude to pursue intellectual activities
--> less often in passive leisure activities


personality-situation transactions
- agreeableness

- HIGH = being cooperative and avoiding conflicts --> social interactions style and not how people seek out situations
- young adults: argued less often, behaviour judged as friendly


personality-situation transactions
- conscientiousness

- HIGH = tenacious goal pursuit, high task orientation
- young adults: work more often, engage less in leisure activities, complete more tasks in time
--> doing work activities/chores more often, being less often with friends, doing leisure activities, watching TV