TASK 2 - INTELLIGENCE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TASK 2 - INTELLIGENCE Deck (37)
1

intelligence/mental ability (AHSTON)

= capacity to solve problems that demand thinking-related skills

2

intelligence

= general mental ability; ability to reason, solve problems (PIAGET), think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas (GOTTFREDSON), learn and make sense of environment (WECHSLER)

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early intelligence measurement

1. GALTON: interested in individual differences; physical physiological test = reaction time, hearing ability
2. BINET: more applied/practical; test to determine mental age
3. STERN: uses mental age from Binet
- IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100
(100 = average)

4

historic theories

1. SPEARMAN
2. THURSTONE
3. GUILFORD
4. CATTELL

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1. SPEARMAN
- g-factor

= general factor of intelligence; one factor determines performance on ALL tests
- if you are intelligent, you perform on average good in all subjects in school
1) principle of indifference of the indicator = content of the task was unimportant
2) eduction of relations and correlates = highly g-loaded tasks involved reasoning --> develop rule, find missing solution of this relation

6

1. SPEARMAN
- two-factor model

= when you perform well on one task you’re likely to perform well on the others; set of specific factors determine specific performance on specific tests (in addition to g-factor)
- if you are intelligent, you also tend to score high on more specific subjects in school (french, english vs. math, physics)

7

2. THURSTONE

primary mental abilities = tasks for similar mental processes would be highly correlated
- 7 factors
1. verbal fluency
2. verbal comprehension
3. numerical facility (= ability to work quickly with numbers)
4. spatial visualisation (= ability to imagine shapes from different perspectives)
5. memory
6. perceptual speed
7. reasoning (= ability to infer patterns)

8

3. GUILFORD

3 dimensions/structure-of-intelligencce model = intelligence is structured into contents, products, operations
- 150 independent factors
x little empirical evidence

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4. CATTELL

hierarchical model = g is at the top; g(f) and g(c)
g(f) = fluid intelligence = reasoning techniques, analysing; fluid in multiple tasks
g(c) = crystallised intelligence = learned knowledge; apply specific learned content

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contemporary theories

5. GARDENER
6. SALOVEY/MAYER (original)
6a. GOLEMAN
7. STERNBERG
8. CARROLL

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5. GARDENER

multiple intelligences = everyone has own pattern of strengths/weaknesses NOT only intelligent/not intelligent
x some intelligences not purely mental, separate talents rather than aspects of intelligence
x hard to find evidence
- 8 intelligences
1. linguistic
2. logical-mathematical
3. spatial
4. musical
5. bodily-kinaesthetic
6. interpersonal
7. intrapersonal
8. naturalistic

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6. SALOVEY/MAYER
- definition of emotional intelligence

= ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action
= original approach

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6. SALOVEY/MAYER
- four-branch model of emotional intelligence

1. perceive emotions: identify one’s own emotions, decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, cultural artefacts
--> makes all processing possible
2. use emotions: harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities (thinking, problem solving)
3. understand emotions: comprehend emotion language, appreciate complicated relationships among emotions; be sensitive to variations; recognise and describe how emotions evolve over time
4. manage emotions: regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others

14

MSCEIT

= Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligences test
- based on four-branch; scores for each branch + total score

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6a. GOLEMAN
- definition of emotional intelligence

= ability to regulate one’s emotions
- self-control, self-confidence, empathy, conflict management, awareness of one’s emotion --> socially desirable personality traits
x difficult differentiation from personality
= recent approach; made EI popular topic

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7. STERNBERG

triarchic model = attention to conventional notions of intelligence; attention should to Adaptive Abilities
1. analytic intelligence: think logically and critically
- predict academic performance
2. creative intelligence: formulate new ideas, gain original insights
- predict creative accomplishments
3. practical intelligence: solve problems in everyday context; common-sense understanding of how world works
- predict real-world successes
x not much evidence
x aspects are not independent

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8. CARROLL

3 stratum model
1. stratum Ill = general intelligence (g)
2. stratum II = 8 broad types of mental ability
3. stratum I = very specific mental skills

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biological bases

- brain size
- speed of transmission (myelin, nerve conduction velocity, reaction time, inspection time, averaged evoked potential)
- neural efficiency (glucose metabolism)

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brain size (post mortem)

.1-.2

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brain size (MRI)

- positively correlated with mental ability (.3-.4)
- size of certain brain regions (regions involved in thinking/cognitive processes) might be more important --> prefrontal cortex

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myelin

- more myelin = faster action potential transmission
.5

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nerve conduction velocity

= duration of transmission of electrical impulses from cells of brain and nervous system --> short duration = fast brain
- no consistent strong link with intelligence

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(reaction time)

= time interval between perception of stimulus and action
- negative correlation --> slower reaction times = lower scores on tests

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(inspection time)

= duration of time that a stimulus must be present before brain can notices stimulus --> realisation time of brain
- strong negative correlations --> longer inspection times = lower scores on mental ability tests

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(averaged evoked potentials)

- brain waves = electrical activity in brain due to activation of neurones
- averaged evoked potentials = average results of brain waves
- strongest relations with mental ability scores --> higher levels of mental ability = greater overall complexity of brain waves; shorter latency (= faster brain waves to stimulus), higher frequency (more activity), lower amplitude (= less extreme response to stimulus)

26

brain glucose metabolism

= rate at which brain uses glucose (= main source of energy for brain)
- negatively correlated (-.68): higher levels of mental ability = less consummation of glucose in task performance --> more efficient brains, require less glucose to solve problems

27

nature vs. nurture

50% due to genes
- increases in adulthood (80%)
25% due to shared environment
- decreases after childhood
25% non-shared environment

28

nature
- genetic influences

- effect of shared environment become less important in development --> in adulthood mental abilities heavily depend on genetic characteristics
- additive genetic variance = combined effects of genes; sums of separate effects of each gene
- nonadditive genetic variance = combined effects of genes are different from what would be expected based on separate effects of each gene

29

nature
(- womb environment effect)

= nutrients, toxins, hormones; differences in mother and pregnancies
- differences in chorion (+ differences in prenatal nutrition) some effect on development of foetus
- reduces effect of pure genes

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nature/nurture
(- nutrition)

1. breastfeeding = effect remains a possibility (better nutrition)
- not established (no difference between siblings who were/were not breastfed)
2. gestation (prenatal) = nutrition as foetus associated with higher levels of intelligence (twins: share nutrients, lower intelligence scores than non-twin siblings)
3. changes in levels = lower levels of vitamin B12 associated with higher risk of relative decline between childhood and old age

31

nature/nurture
(- birth order)

- first-born children have slightly higher IQs than second-born children
1. biological hypothesis: womb environment becomes less favourable with each pregnancy
2. social hypothesis: early-born have better social environment (undivided attention, intellectual stimulation, teaching their younger siblings)
--> link due to differences in intellectual stimulation

32

evolutionary function

1. new genetic mutations:
- mutations become less frequent due to natural selection
BUT never eliminated (mutations arise with each generation)
2. costs and benefits of higher mental ability:
- benefits: survival, reproduction, parenting
- costs: larger brain = consume more energy, longer development
BUT more advantages
3. sex differences: (nowadays)
- different selection pressures: selection for abilities during prehistoric times --> differences in IQ tasks today (spatial ability high in men = hunting)

33

life outcomes

- school performance = .5
- job performance: .3-.5 (depends on job)
- career success: .53
- juvenile crime: -.19 (high-IQ-people more law-abiding)
- life expectancy: lifestyle, risk taking

34

flynn effect

= scores on intelligence scores increased over several decades
- stronger gains for fluid than crystallised intelligence (but increase in both)
- decreasing gains in more recent decades
- non-linear gains
- stronger gains for adults than children
- stronger gains on low-g tests

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causes for flynn effect
- environmental

1. education: crystallised IQ
2. effects of technology: fluid IQ
3. decreasing family size
4. test-taking behaviour: increased guessing behaviour

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causes for flynn effect
- biological

- hybrid vigor: increased heterozygosity due to mating of different sub-populations

37

causes for flynn effect
- hybrid

1. improved prenatal/postnatal nutrition
2. reduced pathogen/bacterial stress
3. reduced IQ variability
4. social multipliers: improved environment --> individual improvement --> better environment
5. SLOWER LIFE HISTORY SPEED: fewer sexual patterns and thus less kids and more energetic investment in cognitive abilities