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Flashcards in TASK 6 - LIFE OUTOMES Deck (45)


= personality as predictor of life outcomes
= personality predicts occurrence/likelihood of several major life events
- high/low personality trait = predictor --> more/less likely for certain event to occur


relationship + marriage
- associated personality characteristics

one’s own marital satisfaction:
- high agreeableness, emotional stability
one’s partner marital satisfaction
- high agreeableness, emotional stability
--> agreeable, stable people tend to be more satisfied with marriage + develop better marriages


are spouses similar in personality?

- tend to be only slightly similar in personality


attachment styles

1) anxious attachment = tendency to worry about loss of a partner’s love
- low emotional stability, low conscientiousness
2) avoidant attachment = tendency to feel uncomfortable being emotionally close to one’s partner
- modestly low extraversion, low conscientiousness


parenting styles

- parents higher in openness to experience, extraversion: more nurturing, less restrictive parenting style


popularity (young adults)
- associated personality characteristics

- high extraversion (men + women); emotional stability, physical attractiveness (men only: toughness of emotional stability admired by men more than by women; attractiveness in women may be source of antagonism)
--> social status in purely social groups: other variables (group of workers, friendship quality) could address different personality traits (conscientiousness, honesty)


are friends similar?

- neither similar nor opposite
- similar values: honesty-humility and openness to experience most related
--> H and O similar to each other: friends perceive themselves as similar + overestimate similarity


health-related outcomes
- associated personality characteristics

substance use
- low conscientiousness (no impulse control, cannot resist temptations); emotional stability/high neuroticism (anxiety, moodiness, highly tempted)
- high social dependability/ conscientiousness (taking care of one’s health, better handling of life stress)


type A personality

= risk factors for heart-related illnesses: competitiveness, impatience, ‘work-aholic’, hostility, time urgency
- high hostility, high dominance (more strongly associated) --> greater physiological reactions to stress (= greater increase in blood pressure, heart rate… = damage blood vessels = increasing risk of heart disease)


academic performance
- associated personality characteristics

- high conscientiousness (achievement motivation, greater effort, efficiency, attention to detail)
- elementary school (high agreeableness) more about character: agreeableness high
- openness important for languages


- associated personality characteristics

- high manipulation/ primary psychopaths
- high impulsivity/ secondary psychopaths
--> seek immediate pleasure, impulsive risk taking, not inhibiting impulses (low conscientiousness, emotional stability)


primary and secondary psychopathy

- primary psychopaths = more calculating rational; manipulation, selfishness, callousness, deceit

- secondary psychopaths = poor self-control; impulsivity, irresponsibility, lack of planning, poor self-control


dark triad

1) psychopathy
- primary + secondary need to be considered together to predict criminal behaviour
2) machiavellianism = cynical tendency to pursue one’s interests by manipulating others
3) narcissism = inflated view of one’s own importance, entitlement, willingness to exploit others


dark triad
- associated personality characteristics

1) psychopathy: low conscientiousness (low self-control), low honesty-humility
2) machiavellianism: low agreeableness, low honesty-humility
3) narcissism: high extraversion, low honesty-humility


life satisfaction
- associated personality characteristics

- high extraversion (sociability), emotional stability
- high self-esteem
- high cheerfulness = low depressiveness, anxiety
--> general disposition to feel positive emotions: influence way of evaluating life as a whole, influence experiences one has in life
--> strong predictive power of personality


personality change vs. stability

- change: question of ‘how the average person changes in his or her levels of various personality traits throughout life span’
1. do people show similar patterns of development in personality trait levels? - YES

- stability: question of ‘how stable are the differences between people in their levels of personality traits’
2. do people remain stable in their relative standings on a given personality trait? – YES (adulthood)


personality stability
- adulthood

1. most mean-level personality-change occurs between 20 and 40/young adulthood = most important period
2. personality traits continue to change (even in old ages)
- humans are open systems (= retain capacity to change at all ages)
3. time has a positive effect: personality changes retain for remainder of lives
x metabolic set points
4. direction of change is positive: with age become more confident, warm, responsible (socially mature)
--> social maturity = capacity to become a productive and involved contributor to society


personality stability
- childhood

- considerable shifting between toddlerhood and adolescence --> changes rather gradual, personality fairly stable across shorter intervals
- stability between toddlerhood and early childhood: moderate (.35)
- stability between early childhood and middle childhood: rather high (.60)
- rather weak degree of stability between childhood and middle age (inaccurate assessment)


mean-level change

= gain/losses in specific personality traits over a pre-specified period of time and age in the life course for a population of individuals


mean-level changes in personality traits
🔺 Agreeableness

= increases small, except for moderate increase during middle age (50’s)
- positive change
- only statistically significant change in old age


mean-level changes in personality traits
🔶 Conscientiousness

= increase during adolescence, young adulthood and early middle age
- little change in adolescence
- remarkable gains in young adulthood + midlife


mean-level changes in personality traits
⬛️ Emotional stability

= increase during adolescence, young adulthood, during early middle age BUT stop increasing during later middle age
- steady/little increases through midlife


mean-level changes in personality traits
⚫️ Openness to experience

= moderate increase between adolescence and young adulthood, remained stable throughout adulthood, modest decline during late middle age
- gains in adolescence
- declines in old age
--> early increase due to exposure to different people, ideas, opinions
--> decreases due to decreases in physical vitality


🔻 Extraversion (assertive/self-confident aspects/social dominance)

= increase during adolescence, young adulthood, during early middle age BUT stop increasing during later middle age
- become more socially dominant (especially during young adulthood)


⭐️ Extraversion (social/lively aspects/social vitality)

= slight decrease during young adulthood (20’s), further slight decrease toward end of middle age (60’s)
- small increases in adolescence
- small decrease later in life
--> decreases due to physical vitality



= life events as predictor of personality trait change
= personality change as the result of experiencing life events; personality = outcome
- marriage = event --> personality change afterwards


individual differences in personality change

= deviations from overall, mean-level patterns
socialisation effects:
- consequences work experiences
- most but nor all move through specific life experiences
- social investment


personlaity change
- reasons

1) biological processes of maturation: : genetically inclined to show changes in levels of certain hormones/neurotransmitters

2) social investment hypothesis: changes between late adolescence and adulthood reflect greater sense of purpose/direction in life after becoming fully integrated into adult world


three domains of life events

- changes in personality are more consistent in reaction to job entry than to job changes
- once adapted to role demand: changes in jobs result in specific demands leading to diverse personality changes
√ Neo-Socioanalytic Model
- friendships rarely associated with major life events
- changes in social networks: often accompanied by major life events that can impact personality development
- onset of a disease: associated with declines in most of Big Five traits
- recovery from major health issue: less abrupt, not a life event


anticipation effect

= person changes prior to event anticipating event to happen


theories on personality change
- Neo-Socioanalytic model

= personality changes can occur at any age (= plasticity principle) + individuals change because of investment in social roles (= social investment principle)
- requires: individual to be aware of expectations of new social role + be able and willing to change personality


theories on personality change
- developmental perspective

= personality changes occur if major life events are accompanied by new developmental tasks
- five different domains of developmental tasks: romantic relationships, family life, social life, job life, physical changes
- three age groups:
1. young adulthood: establish roles
2. middle adulthood: maintaining roles
3. old age: preventing losses


theories on personality change
- transactional paradigm

= major life events may impact personality development depending on the type of event


theories on personality change
- dynamic equilibrium model

= personality only changes temporarily in reaction to major life events
- people differ in metabolic set points (= typical level on personality trait)
- return to set point after life event (no permanent personality change)


theories on personality change
- five-factor theory of personality

= Big Five personality traits are determined by biological maturation


theories on personality change
- theory of genotype --> environment effects

= personality changes in reaction to major life events but mainly due to genetic effects that lead to experiencing these events but less to the event itself


theories on personality change
- paradoxical theory of personality coherence

= (paradoxically) personality is particularly stable in the face of major life events
- accentuation hypothesis: you accentuate pre-existing traits
- change hypothesis: person does change because has information



= (clinical) interventions as a predictor of personality change
= extent to which personality traits changed as a result of (clinical) interventions
- two opposing positions concerning changes seen in personality traits during therapy
--> both assume that any given personality trait measure captures both state and trait variance


personality state vs. personality trait variance

state = temporary changes; mood change

trait = long-lasting changes; personality change


state-artefact position

= any changes in personality change during therapy can be attributed to state variance of typical trait measures
- don’t change trait but state/mood you’re in
- people who change their moods also change their ratings on measures --> doesn’t reflect real trait change


cause-correction position

= changes in psychological outcomes are the result of changes in the trait not the state component
- changes are enduring and have real consequences for clinical outcomes
--> MORE SUPPORT: interventions cause changes in personality traits


treatment effects
- results

- interventions change personality traits between 1/5th and 1/3rd of standard deviation
- duration between approx. 4-8 weeks best effect
- emotional stability (= negative effect of disorder) primary showing results (followed by extraversion = positive effect)
- anxiety + personality disorders most affected


change + stability of intelligence

- intelligence is highly heritable and malleable
- GE interplay plays a principal role in it
- model


gene-environment interplay

= denotes both correlations as well as interactions between genes and environment = rGE + GxE
--> G-E correlation (rGE) = individuals with particular genotypes for trait are more likely to experience particular relevant environment; environmental control of gene frequency
--> G-E interaction (GxE) = there is difference in effect of given relevant environment on individuals depending on their genotype for trait; environmental control of differential gene effects


gene-environment interplay
- transactional model

= heritability of IQ increases with age, which is evidence of G-E interplay
- G-E interplay expected to be LOW = heritability of IQ is LOW
--> young ages and in poor populations
- G-E interplay expected to be HIGH = heritability of IQ is HIGH --> Old age (accumulated experience) and in wealthy populations (more opportunities)