Flashcards in The Head: Scalp, The Face, The Orbit, The Eyeball, The Ear, and The Parotid Region Deck (67):
What can the five layers of the scalp spell?
Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose Connective Tissue, Periosteum... SCALP
What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?
Internal carotid and external carotid artery branches
What location will each branch of the fifth cranial nerve pass into upon exit from the middle cranial fossa?
Ophthalmic nerve-orbit; maxillary nerve- pterygopalatine region; mandibular nerve- infratemporal region
Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?
All 3 divisions: ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve
What nerve(s) and cord levels of origin to the cervical plexus supply the scalp?
Greater auricular nerve- C2, C3 ventral rami branches; Lesser occipital nerve- C2(C3) ventral rami branches
Which dorsal ramus nerve branch (name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?
Greater occipital nerve- C2, C3 communicating ramus
What nerve(s) provide motor innervation to the scalp?
Facial nerve branches
What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?
Branchial efferent (BE)
What is the embryonic origin of skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve?
The skeletal muscle is derviced from teh branchial arches hence branchial efferent
What is the third layer of the scalp associated with?
Muscular component of the scalp
What muscle(s) are specifically associated with the scalp?
Frontalis and occipitalis bellies of the epicranius muscle
The bellies of the epicranius muscle are connected by what structure?
What is unusual/unique about the muscles of the face?
They do not act as lever muscles; they do not attach to bone at both origin and insertion
Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?
Orbicularis oris, procerus, and risorius
What is the source of innervation for all muscles of facial expression?
Facial nerve branches
What opening(s) are located along the superior wall of the orbit?
What are the contents of the optic canal?
Optic nerve and ophthalmic artery
What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?
What opening(s) are located along the lateral wall of the orbit?
Superior orbital fissure
What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?
Inferior orbital fissure
What is contained int eh inferior orbital fissure?
Maxillary division fo trigeminal nerve
What are the layers of the eyelid?
Skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal plate/tarsus, and palpebral conjunctiva
What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?
Tarsal or Meibomian gland
What is the location of the Meibomian gland?
Tarsus of the eyelid
What is the function of the Meibomian gland?
Produces a thick, hydrophobic substance that prevents tears from overflowing onto the cheeks along the margin of the eyelid
What is the name of the modified sebaceous gland at the base of the eyelash?
Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?
Superior salivary nucleus
Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve?
Nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve
Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?
Greater petrosal or greater superficial petrosal nerve
What is the continuation of the greater petrosal nerve of the seventh cranial nerve?
Vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal
What are teh names of the ganglion of synapse in teh efferent pathway to teh lacrimal galnd?
Pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckels's ganglion
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the pterygopalatine, sphenopalatine or Meckel's ganglion will become incorporated in which cranial nerve branch?
Maxillary nerve of the trigeminal
The zygomaticotemporal nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland through a communication with which branch of the fifth cranial nerve?
Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
Vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, more viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen
Parasympathetic stimulation of targets in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
Vasodilatation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen; constriction of myoepithelial cells leading to release of product from secretory lumen into duct system
What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?
Fibrous tunic, uveal tract, and retina
What are the parts of the uveal tract of the eyeball?
Iris, ciliary body, choroid, and pupil
What are the receptor neurons of the second cranial nerve?
Rod and cone photoreceptor cells
What is the function of the rod cell?
Provide vision in dim light conditions
What is the function of the cone cell?
Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision
What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?
What forms the optic nerve?
Axons of ganglion cells
What is the location of the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
Between the cornea and iris
What is the location of the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
Between the iris and lens
What is contained in the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
What is contained in the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
What is the name given to the chamber behind the lens?
What is the location of the vitreous chamber?
Behind the lens, in front of the retina
What fills the vitreous chamber?
What are the functions of the vitreous body?
Maintain retinal curvature; allow minimal light distortion from lens to retina
What are the common characteristics in origin and insertion of all rectus extraocular muscles?
They all originate from a common annular tendon in teh orbit.
They all insert into the sclera in front of the coronal equator of the eyeball
What is the common characteristic regarding the insertion of both oblique extraocular muscles?
Both insert onto sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the coronal equator
What is the source of innervation of the specific intrinsic eye muscles?
Paraympathetic fibers from oculomotor nerve- ciliaris, sphinter pupillae
Sympathetic fibers from internal carotid artery plexus- dilator pupillae
What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve?
It is the only cranial with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain; It is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus
Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?
Accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal
What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve?
Short ciliary nerve
What is unique about the vascular supply of the retina?
A single vessel supplies it
What vessel supplies the inner tunic of the eyeball?
Central artery of the retina
What is the name given to the palpable posterior project ion corresponding to the triangular fossa of the auricle?
What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the concha of the auricle?
What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle?
The auricle will receive sensory innervation via which specific cranial nerve branches?
Auriculotemoporal nerve (mandibular division, trigeminal), posterior auricular cutaneous nerve (facial), auricular nerve (vagus)
Skin lining the external acoustic meatus contains what modified sebaceous glands?
What is cerumen?
The product of ceruminous glands forming the bulk of ear wax
What vein is formed within the parotid gland?
The retromandibular vein