The Head: Scalp, The Face, The Orbit, The Eyeball, The Ear, and The Parotid Region Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > The Head: Scalp, The Face, The Orbit, The Eyeball, The Ear, and The Parotid Region > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Head: Scalp, The Face, The Orbit, The Eyeball, The Ear, and The Parotid Region Deck (67):
1

What can the five layers of the scalp spell?

Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose Connective Tissue, Periosteum... SCALP

2

What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?

Internal carotid and external carotid artery branches

3

What location will each branch of the fifth cranial nerve pass into upon exit from the middle cranial fossa?

Ophthalmic nerve-orbit; maxillary nerve- pterygopalatine region; mandibular nerve- infratemporal region

4

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?

All 3 divisions: ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve

5

What nerve(s) and cord levels of origin to the cervical plexus supply the scalp?

Greater auricular nerve- C2, C3 ventral rami branches; Lesser occipital nerve- C2(C3) ventral rami branches

6

Which dorsal ramus nerve branch (name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?

Greater occipital nerve- C2, C3 communicating ramus

7

What nerve(s) provide motor innervation to the scalp?

Facial nerve branches

8

What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?

Branchial efferent (BE)

9

What is the embryonic origin of skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve?

The skeletal muscle is derviced from teh branchial arches hence branchial efferent

10

What is the third layer of the scalp associated with?

Muscular component of the scalp

11

What muscle(s) are specifically associated with the scalp?

Frontalis and occipitalis bellies of the epicranius muscle

12

The bellies of the epicranius muscle are connected by what structure?

Galea aponeurotica

13

What is unusual/unique about the muscles of the face?

They do not act as lever muscles; they do not attach to bone at both origin and insertion

14

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?

Orbicularis oris, procerus, and risorius

15

What is the source of innervation for all muscles of facial expression?

Facial nerve branches

16

What opening(s) are located along the superior wall of the orbit?

Optic canal

17

What are the contents of the optic canal?

Optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

18

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?

Lamina papyracea

19

What opening(s) are located along the lateral wall of the orbit?

Superior orbital fissure

20

What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?

Inferior orbital fissure

21

What is contained int eh inferior orbital fissure?

Maxillary division fo trigeminal nerve

22

What are the layers of the eyelid?

Skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal plate/tarsus, and palpebral conjunctiva

23

What are the names given to the modified sebaceous gland in the tarsus of the eyelid?

Tarsal or Meibomian gland

24

What is the location of the Meibomian gland?

Tarsus of the eyelid

25

What is the function of the Meibomian gland?

Produces a thick, hydrophobic substance that prevents tears from overflowing onto the cheeks along the margin of the eyelid

26

What is the name of the modified sebaceous gland at the base of the eyelash?

Ciliary gland

27

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?

Superior salivary nucleus

28

Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve?

Nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve

29

Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?

Greater petrosal or greater superficial petrosal nerve

30

What is the continuation of the greater petrosal nerve of the seventh cranial nerve?

Vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal

31

What are teh names of the ganglion of synapse in teh efferent pathway to teh lacrimal galnd?

Pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckels's ganglion

32

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the pterygopalatine, sphenopalatine or Meckel's ganglion will become incorporated in which cranial nerve branch?

Maxillary nerve of the trigeminal

33

The zygomaticotemporal nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland through a communication with which branch of the fifth cranial nerve?

Ophthalmic nerve

34

Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

Vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, more viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen

35

Parasympathetic stimulation of targets in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

Vasodilatation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen; constriction of myoepithelial cells leading to release of product from secretory lumen into duct system

36

What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?

Fibrous tunic, uveal tract, and retina

37

What are the parts of the uveal tract of the eyeball?

Iris, ciliary body, choroid, and pupil

38

What are the receptor neurons of the second cranial nerve?

Rod and cone photoreceptor cells

39

What is the function of the rod cell?

Provide vision in dim light conditions

40

What is the function of the cone cell?

Provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

41

What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?

Rod cell

42

What forms the optic nerve?

Axons of ganglion cells

43

What is the location of the anterior chamber of the eyeball?

Between the cornea and iris

44

What is the location of the posterior chamber of the eyeball?

Between the iris and lens

45

What is contained in the anterior chamber of the eyeball?

Aqueous humor

46

What is contained in the posterior chamber of the eyeball?

Aqueous humor

47

What is the name given to the chamber behind the lens?

Vitreous chamber

48

What is the location of the vitreous chamber?

Behind the lens, in front of the retina

49

What fills the vitreous chamber?

Vitreous body

50

What are the functions of the vitreous body?

Maintain retinal curvature; allow minimal light distortion from lens to retina

51

What are the common characteristics in origin and insertion of all rectus extraocular muscles?

They all originate from a common annular tendon in teh orbit.
They all insert into the sclera in front of the coronal equator of the eyeball

52

What is the common characteristic regarding the insertion of both oblique extraocular muscles?

Both insert onto sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the coronal equator

53

What is the source of innervation of the specific intrinsic eye muscles?

Paraympathetic fibers from oculomotor nerve- ciliaris, sphinter pupillae
Sympathetic fibers from internal carotid artery plexus- dilator pupillae

54

What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve?

It is the only cranial with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain; It is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus

55

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?

Accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal

56

What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?

Ciliary ganglion

57

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve?

Short ciliary nerve

58

What is unique about the vascular supply of the retina?

A single vessel supplies it

59

What vessel supplies the inner tunic of the eyeball?

Central artery of the retina

60

What is the name given to the palpable posterior project ion corresponding to the triangular fossa of the auricle?

Eminentia triangularis

61

What is the name given to the palpable posterior projection corresponding to the concha of the auricle?

Eminentia concha

62

What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle?

Ponticulus

63

The auricle will receive sensory innervation via which specific cranial nerve branches?

Auriculotemoporal nerve (mandibular division, trigeminal), posterior auricular cutaneous nerve (facial), auricular nerve (vagus)

64

Skin lining the external acoustic meatus contains what modified sebaceous glands?

Ceruminous glands

65

What is cerumen?

The product of ceruminous glands forming the bulk of ear wax

66

What vein is formed within the parotid gland?

The retromandibular vein

67

What branch of the facial nerve penetrates the parotid gland, but is not given off within it?

The chorda tympani nerve

Decks in Spinal Anatomy Class (33):