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Flashcards in Transition Zones Deck (59)
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1

What is the name given to segments that lie in the transition zones of the vertebral column?

transition vertebrae

2

What are the transition zones of the vertebral column?

- occipitocervical
- cervicothoracic
- thoracolumbar
- lumbosacral
- sacrococcygeal

3

How are specific segments within a transition zone identified?

- by adjacent region of the segment
- process of transition
- specific segment (occipitalization of C1)

4

What does the suffix "ization" refer to?

in the process of becoming like

5

What are the possible transition zone-segmental combinations?

- cervicalization of occiput, occipitalization of C1
- dorsalization of C7, cervicalization of T1
- lumbarization of T12, dorsalization of L1
- sacralization of L5, lumbarization of S1
- coccygealization of S5, sacralization of Co1

6

What are the characteristics of cervicalization of occiput?

- an increase in occipital bone size
- formation of new or larger lines on the occipital bone

7

What is the characteristic of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

8

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

9

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1-0.8%

10

When do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process first appear?

during the last trimester in utero

11

When do the bilateral ossification centers fr the odontoid process fuse?

at or shortly after birth

12

What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

13

What is the classification of the joint formed between the C2 odontoid process and centrum?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

14

Ossification between the odontoid process and centrum joint of C2 first appears at what age?

4 years old

15

A joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 is last identified at what age?

7 years old

16

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

17

What is the name given to the joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7?

persistent subdental synchondrosis

18

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

19

What is the classification of the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

20

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification appear?

sometime in early adolescence

21

Based on the age of appearance, how is the tip of the dens center of ossification classified?

secondary center of ossification

22

At what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process?

before age 12

23

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

terminal ossicle

24

What is a basilar impression?

persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

25

What is a basilar invagination?

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

26

What are the charactersistics of dorsalization of C7?

- addition of a rib
- changes in superior articular facet orientation

27

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7?

0.5-2.5% of the population

28

What genetic patterns are suggested in dorsalization of C7?

- chromosome karyotypes are abnormal
- family inheritance patterns are common
- it is associated with a dominant inheritance pattern

29

Do patients typically present with symptoms specific for dorsalization of C7?

no, they are typically asymptomatic

30

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?

female

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