Cause warts and papillomas and are associated with some specific cancers. Have specific tropism for squamous epithelial cells (particularly keratinocytes).
Feature of a cervical carcinoma pap smear
Nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio is high
Abnormal contours/grooves in nuclei
Mostly non-keratinized (blue-staining)
Low risk HPV strains
6 and 11
Poor p53 affinity of E6
A squamous epithelial cell that has been transformed by a papillomavirus. Characteristics include perinuclear clearing and abnormally shaped nucleus. Diagnostic for cervical papilloma virus infection.
Regions of the HPV genome
E (for early)
and L (for late)
HPV16 and HPV18 account for __% of cervical cancers
HPV16 and HPV18 account for 70% of cervical cancers
Key risk factors for cervical carcinoma in women
Sexual promiscuity, an early age of onset of sexual activity, and poor sexual hygiene conditions
Features of a healthy pap smear
Low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
Mixture of keratinized (red-staining) and non-keratinized (blue-staining) cells
A few neutrophils
HPV E6 and E7 function
Vegetative viral DNA replication and the synthesis of the capsid proteins, occur only in the____ of a papilloma
Vegetative viral DNA replication and the synthesis of the capsid proteins, occur only in the fully differentiated squamous epithelial cells of a papilloma
When sequencing the genome of a tumor you are likely to find:
Mutations that activate one or two oncogenes and loss of function mutations in several tumor suppressor genes.
US approved HPV vaccines
Protects against 9 strains of HPV
A single vaginal swave sample can be used for __ and __.
a single vaginal swave sample can be used for cytopathology and HPV testing
HeLa cell line is. . .
An HPV18-positive cell line
Protection from the HPV vaccine is reduced by ~___% overall if it is given to a non-naive patient.
Protection from the HPV vaccine is reduced by ~50% overall if it is given to a non-naive patient.
Likely partially due to proviral DNA integration
L1 and L2
"Late" papilloma genes. Expressed exclusively in the terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the surface of the skin. These are the capsid proteins for HPV.