12-10 Cerebral Cortex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12-10 Cerebral Cortex Deck (27):
1

A: The Broca's Area of the Brain communicates with Wernicke's Area via the [___ ____]. This has to cross the _________ before it reaches either Area.

B: Describe these categories for
[BROCA'S Aphasic Syndrome]
1. Verbally Fluent?
2. Verbal Repetition?
3. Verbally Comprehensive?
4. Verbal Naming

A: The Broca's Area of the Brain communicates with Wernicke's Area via the [Arcuate Fasciculus]. This Fasciculus has to cross the [Central Rolandic Sulcus] b4 it reaches either of the Areas.

B: [BROCA'S Aphasic Syndrome]
1. NON-FLUENT
2. poor
3. GOOD Verbal Comp
4. poor

2

A: Describe these categories for
[Wernicke's Aphasic Syndrome]
1. Verbally Fluent?
2. Verbal Repetition?
3. Verbally Comprehensive?
4. Verbal Naming

A: [Wernicke's Aphasic Syndrome]
1. FLUENT
2. poor
3. BAD Verbal Comp
4. poor

3

A: Santiago Cajal

B: What do he reveal about these his particular discovery? [2]

C: Where is this discovery found in the body?

CAJAL used golgi's invention for staining neurons and discovered [Reticular Formation]

B: Stains revealed....
1. Reticular Formation Neurons are Very Long
2. Reticular Formation Neurons give off A LOT OF dendrites = allows them to sample info going to-and-from

C: [Reticular Formation] is found extending from
Thalamus ------->Medulla

4

A: [Reticular Formation] is a "_____" neuron network that allow the CONVERGENCE of ____ info and the divergence of ______ info It allows _____ things to occur at the same time.

B:
5 functions of the [Reticular Formation]

C: [Reticular Formation] has 3 Columns in it important for its function.
1. [Median Raphe] which has _____ Neurons

2. [Paramedian Effector Zone] which actually has axons that _____ ____ info received from _______to ___ _____, ____ and ________

3. [Lateral Sensory Zone] which RECEIVES _____info from the ________

A: [Reticular Formation] is a "Coordinating" neuron network that allow the CONVERGENCE of Somatosensory info and the divergence of efferent Outputs. It allows MULTIPLE things to occur at the same time.

B:
1. Sleep vs. Wake
2. Pattern Generator (chewing, swallowing, coughing)
3. Coordinates Bladder Micturition
4. Pain Control
5. Cardiovascular control

C: [Reticular Formation] has 3 Columns in it important for its function:
1. [Median Raphe] which has Aminergic Neurons

2. [Paramedian Effector Zone] which actually has axons that SEND OUT info received from [Lateral Sensory Zone] to [Spinal Cord], Diencephalon and Telencephalon

3. [Lateral Sensory Zone] which RECEIVES SENSORY INFO------>[Paramedian Effector Zone]

5

A: Afferents traveling TO [Reticular Formation] project to [___] and [_____] of _______

B:Name the 5 Afferents Traveling TO [Reticular Formation] and where they come from

A: Afferents traveling TO [Reticular Formation] project to [Gigantocellularis] and [Caudal/Oral Pontine Nuclei] of [Paramedian Effector Zone] .

B:Afferents Traveling TO [Reticular Formation] include
1. Corticoreticular (Comes from Motor Cortex)
2. Tectoreticular (comes from SUP colliculi)
3. Cranial Nerves (comes from CN9/10--->[lateral parvocellular area]
4. Cerebelloreticular (comes from fastigial nucleus)
5. Spinoreticular (comes from STT)

6

[Reticular Formation] EFFERENTS Come from[_______] and ______ Nuclei which are both apart of the _______group

Describe the 2 Efferents:

1. Pontine & [Medullary reticulospinal tracts] = effects _______ muscle for _______ & ultimately terminate in _______

2. [Reticulobulbar tract] & [Central tegmental] = Ultimately terminate in _______.
Specifically, they travel INDIRECTLY to _______ and DIRECTLY to _______ & _______ nuclei

[Reticular Formation] EFFERENTS Come from[Gigantocellularis] and [Caudal/Oral Pontine Nuclei]

7

[Reticular Formation]
A: Neurons of the [Median Raphe] [Reticular Formation] All use _______ as NTS.

B: [Ventral tegmental nucleus] secretes _______ and contrals _______

C: The [Magnus Raphe Nucleus] _______ _______

D: What type of projections does the [Reticular Formation] have in the Brain? [3]

[Reticular Formation]
A: Neurons of the [Median Raphe] [Reticular Formation] All use SEROTONIN as NTS.

B: [Ventral tegmental nucleus] secretes DOPAMINE and contrals behaviors a lot!

C: The [Magnus Raphe Nucleus] SUPPRESES PAIN

D: RF Neurons have HIGHLY DIVERSE projections ALL OVER THE BRAIN
1. Midbrain RF ---> Cerebral Cortex
2. Pons RF ---> Cerebellum
3. Medulla RF ---> Spinal Cord

8

A: [Ascending Reticular Activating System] or ARAS plays a role in _______, _______& _______. It helps to _______ the Cerebral Cortex.

B: Other "candidates" that Activate Cerebral Cortex are the...[3]


C: Why does the Cerebral Cortex project TO the [Reticular Formation]?

A: [Ascending Reticular Activating System] or ARAS plays a role in level of alertness, [sleep-wake] rhythms & "Startle" rxns. It helps to Activate the Cerebral Cortex.

B: Other "candidates" for activating Cerebral Cortex...
1. Basal forebrain--->[Basal nucleus of Meynert]---->ACH

2. [Orexin of LAT Hypothalamus]---->tuberomammillary body and STABILIZES WAKE STATE

3. Cholinergic neurons near [locus ceruleus]

C: Motor Cortex, influences alertness and allows focusing of attention

9

A: Consciousness

B: [Subcortical modulating system] maintains _______
These are the Components:

1. [Median Raphe] nuclei---(secretes _______)---> _______ & _______

2. Locus Ceruleus--(secretes _______)----> _______ & _______

3. [Midbrain RF] ---(secretes ____)---> _______

4. [Orexin of ____ Hypothalamus] ---> _______ & _______

5. [Basal nuCleus of Meynert] ----(secretes ____)--> _______

C: Different Groups of these are turned ON/off when you want to ______

A: State of self-awareness in which it's possible to direct attention & manipulate abstract ideas

B: [Subcortical modulating system] maintains consciousness

1. [Median Raphe] nuclei---(secretes serotonin)--->Cortex & Thalamus

2. Locus Ceruleus--(secretes NorEpi)----> Cortex & Thalamus

3. [Midbrain RF] ---(secretes ACH)---> Thalamus

4. [Orexin of LAT Hypothalamus] --->Cortex & Thalamus

5. [Basal nuCleus of Meynert] --(secretes ACH)--> Cortex

C: Different Groups of these are turned ON/off when you want to sleep

10

A: The SCN [Suprachiasmatic Nucleus] is located Above _____ _______ and is used as our ___ ___ ____& ___ _____. It keeps us on a _______. This is 1 of the nucleus from the _____.

B: What type of EXTERNAL input does the SCN receive? [3]

C: What internal Output does it send out?

D: Biologic Rhythms by the SCN are not linked exclusively to the _____ and works together with ___ _____. Name the 4 Categories, describe their timing and give example

E: When does SCN secrete the MOST hormones?

A: The SCN [Suprachiasmatic Nucleus] is located Above Optic Chiasm and is used as our endogenous "biological clock" & CIRCADIAN Pacemaker. It keeps us on a 24 hour cycle, turning some systems on/off. This is a nucleus of the HYPOTHALAMUS.

B: Light (reason its near Optic Chiasm), Food & Temperature

C: Sleep-Wake
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: Biologic Rhythms by the SCN are not linked exclusively to the HIPPOCAMPUS. It works together with Environmental Cues. These are the 4 Categories:

1. Ultradian = less than 24 hours -->Resp/HR

2. Circadian = 24 hours --->Corticosterone rhythm

3. Infradian = More than 24 but less than 1 year-->menstrual cycles

4. Circannual= every year---> Hibernation
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
E: Highest amount of SCN hormone secretion = When ur Sleep

11

A: What are the "Roles" of Sleep? [4]

B: What interesting thing does the size of the Brain do during sleep? Why does it do this?

C: [T or F] it takes A while for our bodies to transition from Sleep--->Awake

Sleep Roles: "Sleep is for BRS -C? "
1. Brain Growth & Development
2. Restoration & Recovery
3. Strategies for prey & predator
4. Consolidates Memory

B: Brain SHRINKS when you go to sleep--->allows Brain CSF to move around and poor dendrite connections to be removed

C: [FALSE] It doesn't take much time to transition from Sleep-->Awake!

12

NON-REM SLEEP
1. EEG Alpha Waves (Amplitude vs. Frequency vs. synchronized)

2. Muscle Tone

3. Arousal Level

4. Mental activity

5. Autonomic Activity

NON-REM SLEEP
1. { EEG Alpha Waves }
Amplitude= LARGE
Frequency= slow
synchronized= YES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Muscle Tone= DEC

3. Arousal Level= progressively higher

4. Mental activity= Vague Dreams

5. Autonomic Activity = INC Parasympathetic with Regular pulse

13

**REM SLEEP**
1. EEG Alpha Waves (Amplitude vs. Frequency vs. synchronized)

2. Muscle Tone

3. Arousal Level

4. Mental activity

5. Autonomic Activity

NON-REM SLEEP
1. { EEG Alpha Waves }
Amplitude= low
Frequency= FAST
synchronized= NO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Muscle Tone= ALMOST GONE

3. Arousal Level= HIGHER (harder to wake from)

4. Mental activity= Detailed & visual emotional dreams

5. Autonomic Activity = INC Sympathetic with IrREGULAr pulse

14

A: What are the 3 Main Structures of the Brain responsible for transitioning you from Wake--->Sleep and
[Non-REM--->REM] ?

B: Where do they project to?

1. Basal Forebrain
2. Hypothalamus
3. Thalamus

B: Cerebral Cortex

15

A: Orexin comes from the [_______ Hypothalamus] and is responsible for _______. It makes sure _______ states are TURNED OFF!

B: Narcolepsy occurs when _______

B2: What is Cataplexy?

C: What are these caused by?

D: The part of the Hypothalamus Orexin is synthesized in was previously considered the ____or ____ center

A: Orexin comes from the [Lateral Hypothalamus] and is responsible for STABILIZING WAKE STATE. It makes sure REM/Non-REM states are TURNED OFF!

B: Narcolepsy occurs when pt randomly falls asleep and IMMEDIATELY enters REM Sleep.

B2: w/ Cataplexy: sudden episode of REM-like muscle Weakness but during FULL CONSCIOUS AWAKEFULLNESS

C: Cataplexy is caused by Autoimmune dz: Body destroying Orexin Neurons

D: LATERAL Hypothalamus was previously considered the FEEDING or PLEASURE center

16

Orexin Corresponds with what 6 components to STABILIZES WAKE STATE

Orexin Corresponds with what 6 components to maintain Wakeful State : "Orexin Lt BR ..TV"

1. [LaTeraldorsal & pedunculopontine nuclei]
2. Basal Forebrain
3. Raphe nuclei

4. Tuberomammillary body
5. [Ventral tegmental area]

17

A: Cingulate gyrus is continuous inferiorly as the ____ ___ and (with __ Fasciculus groups) is how the _______ hemispheres communicate with _______ hemispheres

B:
Describe the 3 TYPES of Cerebral Cortex

A: Cingulate gyrus is continuous inferiorly as the [Hippocampus Gyrus] and (with 4 Fasciculus groups) is how the Front hemispheres communicate with POST hemispheres

B:
1. Neocortex = 6 LAYERS AND MOST OF CORTEX
2. Archicortex - hippocampus
3. Paleocortex = Telencephalon base & Olfactory

18

A: The Neocortex is __ of cerebral cortex.
80% of Neocortex are _______ and 20% are _______

B: Pyramidal Cells have a __[short/long] apical dendrite and a ___ dendrite. Its axons ___[enter/leave] cortex and act as _____ neurons. It has _____ ___ that are selectively modified by _______.

B2: How do Non-pyramidal cells compare to this?

C: Neocortex has 6 layers. Describe the AGRANULAR part vs. the Granular part

D: MOST OF PROJECTIONS OUT OF NEOCORTEX COMES FROM which layer of the NEOCORTEX?

A: The Neocortex is 19% in cerebral cortex. 80% of Neocortex are [Pyramidal Betz Cells] and 20% are non-pyramidal.

B: Pyramidal Cells have a LONG apical dendrite and a basal dendrite. Its axons LEAVE cortex and act as excitatory neurons. It has Dendritic spines that are selectively modified by learning.

Non-pyramidal cells are EXACT opposite!

C: Neocortex has 6 layers:
AGRANULAR = LARGE [Pyramidal Betz cells] come from [Area 5 Frontal Lobe] .
vs.
Granular = small neurons [Found more in Parietal & Occipital lobes]

D: MOST PROJECTIONS OUT OF NEOCORTEX COMES FROM [Layer 5]

19

A: Radioglial cells give rise to _______, which during development climb from _______ ---> _______ surface and form ___ ____

B: ___ ____ have neurons that are functionally similar and there are about __# neurons/column

A: Radioglial cells give rise to neurons, which during development climb from ventricles --->cortex surface and form radial columns.

B: Radial columns have neurons that are functionally similar and there are about 100 neurons/column

20

A: The ANT commissure connects the 2 _______ lobes of each side
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
B: Corpus Callosum has 4 parts.
1. Genu= connects _______
2. ANT Body= connects _______
3. POST Body = connects_______
4. Splenium = connects _______
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C: How is it the R side of Brain does different stuff than L side?

A: The ANT commissure connects the 2 temporal lobes of each side

B: Corpus Callosum has 4 parts.
1. Genu= connects Frontal lobes
2. ANT Body= Frontal lobes
3. POST Body = Parietal lobes
4. Splenium = connects Occipital & Temporal Lobes

C: BRAIN is NOT 100% Symmetrical and this causes different connections in each

21

Name the 4 Primary NEOCORTICAL Areas which are somatotopically organized?

1. Primary Motor

2. Primary Somatosensory

3. Primary Visual

4. Primary Auditory

PRIMARY NEOCORTICAL AREAS
1. Primary Motor = [Area 4 Precentral Gyrus]

2. Primary Somatosensory = [Area 312 POSTcentral Gyrus]

3. Primary Visual = [Area 17 CPVC]

4. Primary Auditory= [Area 41 Heschl's Transverse Temporal Gyrus]

22

The Unimodal association areas are apart of the _______ but NOT apart of _______. It is located next to _______ areas but involves _______[larger/smaller] groups of muscles and helps with _______

Also important in what 2 other things?

B: What happens when you injure Unimodal?

The [Unimodal association areas] are apart of the Neocortex but NOT apart of PRIMARY NEOCORTEX. It is located next to Primary cortical areas but involves larger groups of muscles and helps with supplementary "posture" muscles.

Also important in :
2. Somatosensory Area 5 & 7
3. Visual Area 18 & 19

B: Injury ----> Agnosia (inability to recognize things or interpret sensations)

23

[Multimodal association areas] DO NOT HAVE ___ __ ___ like Primary Neocortex. It involves ______ ______ ______ functions. These areas may respond to ____ stimuli. It's found in the ______ and ______ areas of the head.

B: Give Example

C:
Explain the 2 Injuries of Multimodal association areas

[Multimodal association areas] DO NOT HAVE SOMATOPIC Homoncular distributions like Primary Neocortex. It involves High level intellectual functions. These areas may respond to MULTIPLE stimuli. It's found in the [Prefrontal] and PTO [Parietal-occipital-temporal] areas of the head.

B: Example: 1 area twitches fingers and Direct adjacent area twitches mouth

C:
1. Injuring R inf parietal ---> contralateral sensory neglect
2. Injuring L parietal------>Apraxia

24

Prefrontal area is for ___[3]

B: It receives input from _______, uses [_______ for memory/logic and _______ for emotional decision planning.

C: How is development of Male Prefrontal Cortex different than females?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: Limbic area is for _______ and _______

Prefrontal area =
1. memory
2. decision making
3. Executive functions such as planning

B: It receives input from Dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus, uses [Dorsolateral for memory/logic] and [Ventromedial for emotional decision planning.]

C: Male Prefrontal Cortex doesn't myelinate until later in life
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D: Limbic area = emotional and "drive" related behaviors

25

[T or F ] No part of the Brain is Silent and there is ALWAYS Active areas tuned up while others are just tuned down

TRUE!

26

A: Disconnection syndromes usually result from _______ matter damage interfering with ____ ___ or ___ ____

B: Alexia w/o Agraphia is when patient can _______ but CAN NOT _______! Give an Example

C: AWA is usually caused by _______ stroke to _______ Lobe. ___ ____ of this area is affected

A: Disconnection syndromes usually result from WHITE matter damage interfering with Corpus Callosum or ANT commissure.

B: Alexia w/o Agraphia = Alexia can WRITE but CAN'T READ! --->Can see a phone in L eye of UNAFFECTED occipital lobe but not tell you what it is because R Occipital lobe has lesion

C: AWA is usually caused by PCA stroke to Occipital Lobe. Corpus Callosum of this area is affected--->Seeing object in L eye CAN'T be interpreted in the R brain like normal.

27

A: What is Apraxia?

B: What is caused by?

Apraxia = Motor Disorder in which "PLANNING" movement is loss! <----caused by Basal Ganglia deterioration [Cognitive PreFrontal parallel loop]