12-15 Limbic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12-15 Limbic System Deck (10):
1

A: AMYGDALA has 3 Nuclei and is found UNDER the _____ _____ _____ in front of the _____.
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B: 3 Nuclei:
1. Medial = _________

2. Central = connects TO _____ for _____ responses and is somewhat considered a "_____" station

3. BasoLateral = is the _____[smallest/Largest] nc. and contains _____ neurons that receives signals FROM _____ _____ and _____ _____.

C: How does Emotional Experiences manifest as actual expression?

A: AMYGDALA has 3 Nuclei and is found UNDER the limbic lobe Uncus in front of the Hippocampus.
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B: 3 Nuclei:
1. Medial = small nc. connected to Olfactory system

2. Central = connects to Hypothalamus for emotional responses and is somewhat a "relay" station

3. BasoLateral = is the LARGEST and contains pyramidal neurons and receives signals FROM Sensory cortex and Sensory Thalamus.

C: [BasoLateral nc. ----> Central nc.] allows Emotional Experiences to manifest as expression

2

What type of information does each of the Amygdala nuclei receive?

Olfactory-----> Medial

MOST info -- (from thalamus and unimodal visual/auditory association areas)----> BasoLateral

Visceral sensory info----> Central

3

A: Fibers LEAVE amygdala through [_____ _____] and travel to the _____, _____, _____ and DIRECTLY TO _____ _____ .

B: _____ is important for remembering an event occurred But
_____ is important for remembering whether event was "good/bad" and triggering appropriate responses to the NEXT similar event.
The _____ forms "Conditioned Fear responses"

A: Fibers LEAVE amygdala through [Stria terminalis] and travel to Hypothalamus, [Thalamus>Dorsomedial nc.], Hippocampus and DIRECTLY TO TEMPORAL LOBE.

B: Hippocampus is important for remembering an event occurred But
AMYDALA is important for remembering whether event was "good/bad" and triggering appropriate responses to the NEXT similar event.
The AMYGDALA forms "Conditioned Fear responses"

4

A: Bilateral lesions to the AMYGDALA housed in the Tips of the _______ LOBES causes what Dz?


B: Name the 5 common sx


C: What Surgical intervention was the Dz previously caused by?

A: Bilateral lesions to the Amygdala housed in the Tips of the TEMPORAL LOBES
-------> [Kluver-Bucy syndrome]

B:
1-Docility (abnormally calm)
2- Hyperphagia (eating inappropriate things or overeating)
3- Hyperorality (putting things in ur mouth)
4- Hypersexuality
5- Visual Agnosia (doesn't recognize objects/people)

C: Was previously caused by MD attempting to stop seizures in Temporal lobes....and severed the tips

5

A: EFFERENTS from the Amygdala going to Thalamus usually terminates in the ______ nucleus of Thalamus

B: What is the Amygdala important for doing?

A: Efferents from the amygdala ----> Thalamus usually terminates in the DORSOMEDIAL nc. of Thalamus

B: Amygdala is important for MARKING EMOTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE IN A SITUATION OR EVENT
ex. our emotional response to an event may affect it as being a declarative memory

6

A: Hippocampus is folded into the ______ lobe and made up of [______ ______] and [______ ______] which interlock together in a __-shape using a _________

B: ANT part of [______] AKA{______ ______} is the major connecting point between it and [Association cortex]. This allows hippocampus to play a role in ______ MEMORY.

C: Bilateral damage to hippocampus or associated ______ areas ----> ______ Amnesia

D: Describe the Amnesia caused by Bilateral damage to Hippocampus

E: Long-term memories live ______[inside/Outside] the hippocampus

F: ANT part of [Hippocampus] is AKA [______ ______]

A: Hippocampus is folded into the temporal lobe and made up of [Dentate Gyrus] and [Hippocampus proper] which interlock together in a C-shape using a [subiculum transition zone].

B: ANT part of [Hippocampus] {Entorhinal Cortex} is the major connecting point between it and [Association cortex]. This allows hippocampus to play a role in DECLARATIVE MEMORY.

C: Bilateral damage to hippocampus or associated diencephalic areas ---->Anterograde Amnesia

D: Anterograde Amnesia = NEW memories and events CAN NOT be formed

E: Long-term memories mostly live OUTSIDE the hippocampus

F: ANT part of [Hippocampus] = Entorhinal Cortex

7

3 Pathway AFFERENTS traveling TO Hippocampus:

1. [ Unimodal/Multimodal association areas]-------> [______ ______] ----> ______ of Hippocampus ---> [______ ______]

2. [Cholinergic Septal Nuclei]----(travels ______ but still DIRECTLY)----> ______------> ______

3. ______ ---(travels DIRECTLY)----> Hippocampus

Pathway for Affarents of the Hippocampus:

1. [ Unimodal/Multimodal association areas]-------> [Hippocampus Entorhinal] ---->Dentate of Hippocampus ---> [Hippocampus proper]

2. [Cholinergic Septal Nuclei]----(travels backward but DIRECTLY)---->Fornix------> Hippocampus

3. Amygdala ---(travels DIRECTLY)----> Hippocampus

8

Pathway for EFFERENTS of Hippocampus

1. [Hippocampus]--->Fornix-----> ______ ______----> [______ nucleus of ______]----> ______ Gyrus----(back to)-----> ______ ______

2. [Hippocampus] ---->[Hippocampus ______] ---->
[ Unimodal/Multimodal association areas]

3. MAJORITY of fibers in the Fornix System connect the ______ to the ______

Pathway for EFFERENTS of Hippocampus

1. [Hippocampus]--->Fornix----->Mammillary Body----> ANT nc. of thalamus---->Cingulate Gyrus----(back to)----->[Hippocampus Entorhinal]

2. [Hippocampus] ---->[Hippocampus Entorhinal] ---->
[ Unimodal/Multimodal association areas]

3. MAJORITY of fibers in the Fornix System connect the HIPPOCAMPUS to the HYPOTHALAMUS

9

A: Hippocampus damage/degeneration is highly linked to ______ Dz. This will cause ______[Anterorade/retrograde] amnesia . The function of ______ memories is attributed to ______. Where are most memories stored?

B: What item is the Hippocampus compared to and why?

C: 3 Causes of Hippocampus damage


D: Hippocampus Damage will likely lead to Loss in ______[Long/Short] Term Memory!

A: Hippocampus damage/degeneration is highly linked to Alzheimer's Dz. This will cause Anterograde amnesia . The function of Consolidating memories (so you can recall them for later use) is attributed to Hippocampus. Memories themselves are stored Elsewhere!

B: Like an index because it keeps track of where all pieces of memory are stored

C: Causes of Hippocampus damage
1. Hypoxia
2. Encephalitis
3. medial Temporal lobe epilepsy

D: Hippocampus Damage will likely lead to Loss in SHORT Term Memory!

10

A: [Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome] is a ______ brain disorder caused by lack of ______] due to ______ abuse. This often affects ______ & its targets

B: What are the Sx for this dz?
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C: What is the difference between Wernicke's encephalopathy vs. Korsakoff's Amnesic Syndrome

A: [Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome] is a degenerative brain disorder caused by lack of [Vitamin B1 Thiamine] due to EtOH abuse. This often affects Hippocampus & its targets

B: Sx= lost in spatial memory=awkward movement
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C: Wernicke's encephalopathy = "acute" phase of disorder

D: Korsakoff's Amnesic Syndrome = "Chronic" phase
---->Confabulation(making up random things)