12-11 HYPOthalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12-11 HYPOthalamus Deck (19):
1

A: Hypothalamus comprises the _______ part of the _______. The _______ sits BEHIND it while Hypothalamus Rostral border is marked by the ____ ___, _______ and ___ ____.

B: The [Median eminence] is a ___ _____ found in the ___ ____ Space]. This space is continuous with the _______ & _______

C: What does the THE HYPOTHALAMUS actually regulate?

D:[T or F] Most connections in HYT are bilateral

A: Hypothalamus comprises the VENTRAL part of the Diencephalon. The Mesencephalon sit BEHIND it while Hypothalamus Rostral border is marked by the Optic Chiasm, [ANT commissure] and lamina terminalis.

B: The [Median eminence] is a midline swelling found in the [Tuber Cinereum Space]. This space is continuous with the [infundibulum stalk] & [POST Pit neurohypophysis]

C: HYPOTHALAMUS regulates the [Homeostasis Internal Milieu]

D: TRUE! Most connections in HYT are bilateral

2

Hypothalamus (HYT) is divided into 3 _______ Zones
Parasaggital Zones:

1. Lateral Hypothalamus which contains _______ and gives and synthesizes _______

2. Medial Hypothalamus which contains _______ nuclei

3. PeriVentricular Gray = _______

Hypothalamus (HYT) is divided into 3 Parasaggital Zones
1. Lateral Hypothalamus= contains [mediaLL forebrain bundle] and synthesizes Orexin

2. Medial Hypothalamus = contains hypothalamic nuclei

3. Periventricular gray = narrow area of neurons next to 3rd ventricle

3

The [Medial Preoptic Area] (MPOA) of the _______ is a Rostrocaudal level involved with:
1. Sexual Dimorphism and Arousal
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
3. Fever & Body Temp

How is the MPOA related to each?

B:
:1. In "Sexually dimorphic" MPOA , Males had _______[smaller/Larger] brain nucleus than females. The MPOA shows INC neuronal activity with ___ ____

2. GnRH cells are _______[front/behind] the MPOA and project to _______ where it can secrete GnRH into capillaries of _______

3. In response to _______ MPOA neurons activate heat production mechanisms using connections to ____ ______

C: How does Aspirin prevent MPOA heat production activation?

D: The ____ ___ is the caudal continuation of the MPOA

The [Medial Preoptic Area] (MPOA) of the Hypothalamus is a Rostrocaudal level involved with:
1. Sexual Dimorphism and Arousal
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
3. Fever & Body Temp
How is the MPOA related to each?

B:
:1. In "Sexually dimorphic" MPOA , Males had larger brain nucleus than females. The MPOA shows INC neuronal activity with sexual arousal

2. GnRH cells are in front of the MPOA and project to [median eminence] where it can secrete GnRH into capillaries of [HYT Portal system]

3. In response to prostaglandin E2, MPOA neurons active heat production mechanisms via connections to HYT [paraventricular nucleus] .

C: Aspirin prevents the synthesis of prostaglandin E2
---->Nothing to stimulate MPOA--->Body Temp DEC

D: The [ANTERIOR NUCLEUS] is the caudal continuation of the MPOA

4

A: The [Paraventricular nucleus] (PVN) of the _______ has 3 Divisions and respond to _______ afferents (which come from the _______) AND limb structures like the _______, _______ and _______

What are the Divisions?
B:
1. medial division= Projects DIRECTLY to _______ and secretes _______, which control the _______

2. [Magnocellular Intermediate division]= Projects DIRECTLY to _______. What is the purpose of this?

3. Lateral division=Projects DIRECTLY to _______, _______ and _______

C: The PVN and its 3 divisions are located where?

A: The [Paraventricular nucleus] (PVN) of the Hypothalamus has 3 Divisions and respond to Noradrenergic afferents (come from the Brain Stem) AND limb structures like the septum, amygdala and [hippocampal formation] )

What are the Divisions?
B: 1. medial division= Projects DIRECTLY to [median eminence] and secretes {release/inhibit hormones}
---(control)-->[ANT Pit]

2. [Magnocellular Intermediate division]= Projects DIRECTLY to [POST Pit neurohypophysis] -->to give it Oxytocin & ADH

3. Lateral division=Projects DIRECTLY to [neurons of IML: Sympathetic], [DMX: PARAsympathetic] and [Solitary nucleus of Vagus]

C: Supraoptic

5

A: [Supraoptic nucleus] of the ______ Projects DIRECTLY to ______, and stimulates it to secrete ___ & ___

B: What other structure does this same thing??

C: Lesions involving [Supraoptic Nucleus] or ______ will lead to Diabetes ______ because there is DEC ____ levels

D: What part of the HYT is this located?

A: [Supraoptic nucleus] of the Hypothalamus Projects DIRECTLY to [POST Pit neurohypophysis] -->to give it Oxytocin & ADH

B: [Intermediate Magnoceullar division] of [Paraventricular Nucleus]

C: Lesions involving [Supraoptic Nucleus] or [POST Pit neurohypophysis]---> Diabetes Insipidus because there is DEC ADH levels

D: Supraoptic

6

A: The [Arcuate nc.] , Ventromedial nc., ______ and ______ are all located in the TUBERAL level of the HYT

B: Ventromedial nc. receives afferent input from the ______ via ______ It sends EFFERENTS to ______
which controls ______. This nucleus was previously considered "______ Center"

C: [Arcuate nc.] is located ______ near ______ and projects to Both ______& ______ It secretes MANY ______ hormones which explains why hormones are released during ______!

A: The [Lateral Hypothalamus], [Ventromedial nc.], Dorsomedial nc. and [Arcuate nc.] are all located in the TUBERAL level of the HYT

B: Ventromedial nc. receives afferent input from the Amygdala via [Stria terminalis]. It sends EFFERENTS to [median eminence]--->controls [ANT pit Adenohypophysis]. Was previously considered "Satiety Center"

C: [Arcuate nc.] is located ventrally near [infundibulum stalk] and projects to Both [median eminence] & [HYT Portal system]. It secretes MANY releasing hormones which explains why hormones are released during Stress!

7

A: [Mammillary nuclei bodies] are located on ______ surface of ______. They receive a HUGE projection FROM ____ __ via the ______.

B: EFFERENTS of [Mammillary nuclei bodies] project to BOTH ______ of Brainstem (via [______ tract])
AND
______ of thalamus via [______ tract]

C: What is [Wernicke-Korsakoff] syndrome
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D: The [Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray (PAG)] is continuous with the ___ _____

A: [Mammillary nuclei bodies] are located on ventral surface of POST diencephalon. They receive a HUGE projection FROM [Hippocampal formation] via the Fornix.

B: EFFERENTS of [Mammillary nuclei bodies] project to BOTH [Reticular Formation] of Brainstem via [mammillaTegmental tract] AND
[ANTERIOR Nuclei of Thalamus] via [mammillathalamic tract]

C: [Wernicke-Korsakoff] syndrome = mammillary degeneration 2º to alcoholism-->degrades MEMORY
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D: [POST nucleus] (also found on mammillary level) is continuous with Periaqueductal gray (PAG)

8

The Pituitary regulates the ______ system and is controlled by the ______. It has an [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] and [POST Pit Neurohypophysis]

Describe Each:
A: [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] Develops from the ______ in embryo. NOT FROM ______. It's stimulated by ______ ______ ______ and as result will Secrete MOST of the ______ Hormones. Name These 6 Hormones
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B: [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] = ______ [Direct/inDirect]
hormone control

The Pituitary regulates the endocrine system and is controlled by the Hypothalamus. It has an [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] and [POST Pit Neurohypophysis]

Describe Each:
A: [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] Develops from the Roof of Rathke's Pouch in embryo. NOT FROM NEURAL TUBE. It's stimulated by Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones and as result Secretes MOST of the Pituitary Hormones
[FLAT PiG]
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B: [ANT Pit Adenohypophysis] = inDirect hormone control
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FSH / LH / ACTH / TSH / Prolactin / Growth Hormone

9

A: FORNIX arises from ______ ______ AND PROJECTS to

1. ______ AND 2. ______

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B: Stria Terminalis= Important pathway arising from ______ and projects to its ___ ___ and then to ___ ___
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A: FORNIX arises from hippocampal formation AND PROJECTS to 1. hypothalamus (medial division & mammillary nuclei bodies) AND 2. [ANT nucleus of Thalamus].
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B: Stria Terminalis= Important pathway arising from [Medial Amygdala] and projects to its bed nucleus and then to [medial Hypothalamus]
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10

A: [MediaLL forebrain Bundle] is the MAIN pathway traveling across ______. These fibers arise from BOTH ______ AND ______. It then project directly to ______ of hypothalamus.

B: [MediaLL forebrain Bundle] is made of...
1. hypothalamic EFFERENTs projecting to ______
2. Ascending projections FROM ______ to supply ______

A: [Medial forebrain Bundle] is the MAIN pathway traveling across [LAT hypothalamus]. These fibers arise from BOTH [septal hypothalamus area] and [diagonal band of Broca] and then project directly to [mammillary nuclei bodies] of hypothalamus.

B: [Medial forebrain Bundle] consist of
1. hypothalamic EFFERENTs projecting to brainstem
2. Ascending projections FROM brainstem to supply forebrain

11

A: Hypothalamus receives ______ projections from the ______(contains serotonin), ______ (contains NorEpi) and ______ (contains Dopamine).

A: Hypothalamus receives monoaminergic projections from the [Median Raphe complex] (contains serotonin), Locus Ceruleus (contains NorEpi) and [Ventral Tegmental area] (contains Dopamine).

12

A: [Midbrain periqueductal gray (PAG)] shares and is functionally related to the ____ _______

B: Name the 3 important monoamines for the hypothalamus

B2: The Basal Ganglia(______ system) and [Ventral tegmentum](______ system) send ______ projections to the ______ and other limbic areas via the ____ ___ ____

A: Midbrain periqueductal gray (PAG) matter shares and is functionally related to the [medial hypothalamus]

B: Dopamine / NorEpi / Serotonin are the 3 monoamines of importance to the hypothalamus

B2: The Basal Ganglia(nigrostriatal system) and [Ventral tegmentum](mesolimbic system) send DOPAMINE projections to the hypothalamus and other limbic areas via the [MediaLL forebrain Bundle]

13

A: Hypothalamus receives ______ projections from the ______(contains serotonin), ______ (contains NorEpi) and ______ (contains Dopamine).

B: The Locus Ceruleus contain ______ neurons which course thru __ __ __ to get to the Hypothalamus & other limbic structures. This path is later joined by ___ __ __
---->together creates ______ ______bundle ---> ______ & ______

A: Hypothalamus receives monoaminergic projections from the [Median Raphe complex] (contains serotonin), Locus Ceruleus (contains NorEpi) and [Ventral Tegmental area] (contains Dopamine).

B: The Locus Ceruleus contain NorEpi neurons which course thru [Dorsal Tegmental bundle] to get to Hypothalamus & other limbic structures. This path is joined by [Ventral noradrenergic bundle] ---->together creates [MediaLL forebrain bundle]--->amygdala & Hypothalamus

14

A: Hypothalamus receives ______ projections from the ______(contains serotonin), ______ (contains NorEpi) and ______ (contains Dopamine).

B: The 2 Ascending groups of Serotonin Cell bodies are found in the ______ and ______ . Axons from ______ Forms the Ventral ascending path which courses thru [ventral tegmentum] to join noradrenergic fibers in the ______ ______bundle ---> ______ & ______

A: Hypothalamus receives monoaminergic projections from the [Median Raphe complex] (contains serotonin), Locus Ceruleus (contains NorEpi) and [Ventral segmental area] (contains Dopamine).

B: The 2 Ascending groups of Serotonin Cell bodies are found in the Dorsal and Medial-Raphe Nuclei. Axons from [Dorsal Raphe nuclei] Forms Ventral ascending path which courses thru [ventral tegmentum] to join noradrenergic fibers in the [MediaLL forebrain bundle]-->Hypothalamus

15

Papez circuit was made to describe CNS areas thought to be involved in ______. It starts with
1st: Hippocampus---(via ______)-->

2nd: ______ ---(via ______ tract) ---->

3rd: ______------>

4th: ______ Gyrus----> Hippocampus

B: The ______ Gyrus is unique in that is also corresponds with ______ and ______ ______ which makes them also apart of the Papez Circuit

Papez circuit was made to describe CNS areas thought to be involved in emotion. It starts with
1st: Hippocampus---(via fornix)-->

2nd: [Mammillary Nuclei bodies] of hypothalamus ---(via mammillothalamic tract) ---->

3rd: [ANT nc. of Thalamus] ------>

4th: Cingulate Gyrus----> Hippocampus

B: The Cingulate Gyrus is unique in that is also corresponds with prefrontal and association cortex which makes them apart of the Papez Circuit

16

SERVOMECHANISMS
A: With Hypothalamic Servomechanisms, a ______ variable is maintained within a specific range. This is AKA "___ ___". A Feedback Detector uses this to compare ______ to the "__ ____" and find errors.

B: What 2 type of stimuli can reset this "___ ___"

SERVOMECHANISMS
A: With Hypothalamic Servomechanisms, a controlled variable is maintained within a specific range. This is AKA "Set Point". A Feedback Detector uses this to compare actual variables to "set point" and find errors.

B: External and/or voluntary stimuli may change/reset our "set point"

17

A: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis] stems from ______ & ______. It is a Ventral Outgrowth of the ______ made mostly of ______ ______

B: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis] secretes ______ & ______, which were first donated to it by the ______ and ______ of ______.

C: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis]= ______ [Direct/inDirect] Hormone Control

A: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis] stems from [Median eminence] & [infundibulum stalk]. It is a Ventral Outgrowth of the BRAIN made mostly of axonal endings.

B: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis] secretes Oxytocin & ADH, which were first donated to it by the [Paraventricular nucleus] and [Supraoptic nucleus] of Hypothalamus.

C: [POST Pit Neurohypophysis]= DIRECT RELEASE

18

Periventricular Gray is ______ continuous with ______ Gray, and is the location ______ ______ pathways originate. Eventually this pathway will travel in the ______ of ______ medulla to reach the body

Periventricular Gray is Caudally/inferiorly continuous with Periaqueductal Gray and is the location Descending pain pathways originate (eventually traveling in [Median Raphe Nuclei]) of Rostral medulla

19

[SUP Cerebellar Peduncle] is the main ______[input/Output] pathway for the Cerebellum

[SUP Cerebellar Peduncle] is the main OUTPUT pathway for the Cerebellum