12-8 Thalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12-8 Thalamus Deck (22):
1

Describe these 4 Divisions of the Diencephalon 1. Dorsal Thalamus 2. Epithalamus [3] 3. Subthalamus [2] 4. Hypothalamus


1. Dorsal Thalamus = MAIN THALAMUS 2. Epithalamus= Pineal Gland/Habenular nuclei/ [Stria medullaris] 3. Subthalamus= subthalamic nucleus & Zona incerta 4. Hypothalamus


2

A: What is the [Stria Medullaris] and where is it found?
**SM = fibers from ____ ____ & ______ structures tht work with [______ nuclei] to allow ______ ______ to influence ______ ______ ______

B: What is the [Zona incerta] and where is it found?

A: SM= fibers from [globus pallidus] & limbic structures tht work w/[Habenular nuclei] to allow basal ganglia to influence midbrain reticular formation
A2: Found in the ePithalamus
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B: [Zona incerta] = rostral continuation of [midbrain's reticular formation]. Found in Subthalamus

3

Describe the 4 Components of the of the Thalamus
A: [Internal Medullary lamina]

B: Intralaminar nuclei

C: Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus

D: Midline nuclei

A: [Internal Medullary lamina] = myelinated fibers tht divide thalamus into {ANT/Medial/Lateral(dorsal vs. ventral tier)} divisions
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B: Intralaminar nuclei= embedded in [Internal Medullary Lamina] & projects to both cerebral cortex & basal ganglia
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C: Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus= forms sheet-like structure arounds thalamus & regulates activity of thalamocortical tracts

D: Midline nuclei= rostral continuation of PAG and covers ventricular surface of thalamus

4

Define the 3 Functional Groups of the Thalamus

A- [Specific Relay nuclei]= bidirectional inputs & projections to SPECIFIC motor/sensory Cortex

B- [Association nuclei]= bidirectional connections to association areas of Cortex & subcortical structures

C- [Non-specific nuclei]= NON POINT-TO-POINT connections in intralaminar & midline that "awaken/prepare" cortex for receipt

5

A: [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] projects ONLY to _____ and NOT the _____. Neurons of this nuclei are ___ _____. Thalamic Axons passing thru (incoming & outgoing) give off ____ which travel to [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus]. B: Main Purpose of [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] is to inhibit _____ and therefore Enhances activity of _______


[Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] projects ONLY to other thalamic nuclei and NOT the Cerebral Cortex. Neurons of this nuclei are [inhibitory GABAergic]. Thalamic Axons passing thru (both incoming & outgoing) give off collaterals to [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus]. B: Main Purpose of [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] is to inhibit random background sensory activity ---> Enhances salient activity of 1 area of thalamic neurons.


6

A: What Thalamic Afferents travel TO the [ANTERIOR nc.]? [2] B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the [ANTERIOR nc.] project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [ANTERIOR nc.]


[ANTERIOR nc.] A: Aff= Mammillary body & Hippocampus ---> nc B: Eff= nc---> projects to Cingulate Gyrus C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


7

Describe the Blood Supply for the [Internal Capsule] (3)

Internal Capsule Blood Supply:
1. [lateral striate a.] from MCA

2. [Recurrent a. of Heubner] from the ACA

3. [ANT Choroidal a.]

8

A: Blood Supply for the THALAMUS
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B: Specific inputs to the Thalamus use ____ as a NTS

A: **PCA**
Postetrior Cerebral A.
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B: Specific inputs to the Thalamus use GLUTAMATE as a NTS

9

A: What Thalamic Afferents travel TO the VA[VENTRAL Anterior nc.]? B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the [VENTRAL Anterior nc.] project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [VENTRAL Anterior nc.]


[VENTRAL Anterior nc.] A: Aff= Basal ganglia ( [substantia nigra] ) ---> nc B: Eff= nc---> projects to PreFrontal Cortex C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


10

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [VL>ant] nc. B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [VL>ant] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [VL>ant]


[VENTRAL Lateral nc.]>ANT part A: Aff= Basal ganglia ([Globus Pallidus])---> nc B: Eff= nc---> projects to Supplementary motor area C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


11

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [VL>PoST] nc. B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [VL>PoST] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [VL>PoST]


[VENTRAL Lateral nc.]>PoST part A: Aff= Cerebellum---> nc B: Eff= nc---> MOTOR CORTEX C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


12

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [VPM] nc. B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [VPM] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [VPM] D: What type of info specifically is this Thalamic nucleus involved with?


[VENTRAL POSTEROMEDIAL nc.] A: (Somatic) Aff= Head --> nc B: Eff= nc---> Somatosensory Cortex C: [Specific Relay nuclei] D: Involved with relaying Vestibular information


13

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [VPL] nc. (2) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [VPL] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [VPL] D: What type of info specifically is this Thalamic nucleus involved with?


[VENTRAL POSTEROLateral nc.] A: (Somatic) Aff= [Trunk&Limbs] --> nc B: Eff= nc---> Somatosensory Cortex C: [Specific Relay nuclei] D: Involved with relaying Vestibular information


14

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [Lateral Geniculate] nc. (2) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [Lateral Geniculate] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [Lateral Geniculate]


[Lateral Geniculate nc.] A: Aff= Optic Tract & [SUP colliculus] --> nc B: Eff= nc---> [Area 17 CPVC] C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


15

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [medial Geniculate] nc. B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [medial Geniculate] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [medial Geniculate]


[medial Geniculate nc.] A: Aff= [inf colliculus] --> nc B: Eff= nc---> Primary Auditory Cortex C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


16

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [Lateral Dorsal ] nc. B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [Lateral Dorsal ] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [Lateral Dorsal]


[Lateral Dorsal nc.] A: Aff= Hippocampus--> nc B: Eff= nc---> Cingulate cortex C: [Specific Relay nuclei]


17

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [LP & Pulvinar ] nc. (4) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [LP & Pulvinar] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nuclei are the [LP & Pulvinar]


[(Lateral POST) & Pulvinar nc.] A: Aff= [SUP colliculus]/[Area 17 CPVC]/ [Primary auditory cortex]/Somatosensory Cortex -----> nc B: Eff= nc---> {PPLTAC} "Posterior Parietal and Lateral Temporal Association Cortex" C: [Association nuclei]


18

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [Dorsomedial] nc. (3) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [Dorsomedial] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [Dorsomedial]


[Dorsomedial nc.] A: Aff= [Prefrontal Cortex]/Olfactory/Limbic -----> nc B: Eff= nc---> PreFrontal Cortex C: [Association nuclei]


19

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [Intralaminar] nc. (3) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [Intralaminar] nc. project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [Intralaminar]


[Intralaminar nc.] A: Aff= [Reticular Formation]/[BasalGanglia]/limbic -----> nc B: Eff= nc---> Cerebral Cortex/[BasalGanglia]/limbic C: [Non-Specific nuclei]


20

A: What Afferents travel TO the Thalamic [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] (2) B: Where does the Efferent fibers of the Thalamic [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] project to? C: What type of Thalamic nucleus is the [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] D: What is Different of this Thalamic nucleus from the others?


[Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus] A: Aff= Thalamus & Cortex-----> nc B: Eff= nc---> ONLY other Thalamus nuclei C: [Non-Specific nuclei] D: Aside from this [Thalamic RETICULAR nucleus], All OTHER thalamic nuclei "decide" where info should go in Cerebral cortex


21

Connections between Thalamus ---> Cerebral Cortex & SubCortical structures go thru the ___ _____

1. Anterior interconnections travel thru ___ limb of ___ _____ to Reach _____ & ______

2. SUPERIOR interconnections travel thru ___ limb of ___ _____ to Reach _____ , ______ & ____

3. Posterior interconnections travel thru ___ ___ _____ to Reach _____ , ______ & ____

4. INFERIOR interconnections travel thru ___ ___ _____ to Reach _____ & ______

Connections between Thalamus ---> Cerebral Cortex & SubCortical structures go thru the INTERNAL CAPSULE

1. Anterior interconnections travel thru ANT limb of Internal Capsule to Reach Prefrontal & Cingulate Gyrus

2. SUPERIOR interconnections travel thru POST limb of Internal Capsule ---->premotor/motor/somatosensory cortex

3. Posterior interconnections travel thru retrolenticular Internal Capsule ---->Occipital/POST parietal/temporal LOBES

4. INFERIOR interconnections travel thru SubLenticular Internal Capsule--->ANT temporal & Orbital Cortex

22

Intralaminar nc. and [thalamic reticular nuclei] are both types of the _______ functional group


Intralaminar nc. and [thalamic reticular nuclei] are both types of the NON-SPECIFIC functional group