Flashcards in Basic Embryology of the Vertebral Column Deck (29)
What are the 3 layers of the embryo called?
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
Invagination of ectoderm along the primitive streak gives rise to what embryonic structure?
What is the name given to the mesoderm that will give rise to the vertebral column?
What does paraxial mesoderm give rise to that will form vertebral column?
Name the areas of cellular differentiation formed within the somite?
Sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome
What part of the somite will give rise to the vertebral column?
List, in order, the names of successive vertebral columns formed during development?
Membranous, cartilaginous, skeletal or osseous
Migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord forms what developmental feature?
The perichordal blastema
The perichordal blastema gives rise to what processes?
Neural processes and costal processes
What is the name of the artery located between adjacent perichordal blastemae?
Cell proliferation within the perichordal blastema will result in what features?
A loose cranial sclerotomite and dense caudal scerotomite
What forms between the sclerotomites of a perichordal blastema?
The intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)
What is the earliest embryonic that will identify the position of the adult intervertebral disc?
Intrasclerotomal fissure (fissure of von Ebner)
The union of a dense caudal scleratomite and a loose cranial sclerotomite adjacent perichordal blastemae gives rise to what feature?
The vertebral blastema
What vessel will be identified adjacent to the vertebral blastema?
The segmental artery
What is the name given to the replacement of mesoderm by cartilage?
Chondrification begins in which region of the embryonic vertebral column?
The cervical area
What are the names given to the centers of chondrification within the vertebral blastema?
centrum center, neural arch center, transverse process center
What is the earliest time that centers of ossification appear in the cartilaginous vertebra?
During the 7th embryonic week
What is the ratio of primary to secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?
3 primary centers: 5 secondary centers
What are the names of the primary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?
Centrum centers and neural arch centers
What is the classification of the joint forming between primary centers of ossification?
Cartilage synchondrosis/amphiarthrosis synchondrosis
What are the names of the synchondroses forming between primary centers of ossification in the typical vertebra?
Neurocentral synchondrosis and neural arch synchondrosis
What are the names of the five secondary centers of ossification for a typical vertebra?
Tip of spinous process, tip of the spinous process, epiphyseal plate centers
How many secondary centers of ossification appear in the typical vertebra?
5... 1 for the tip of the spinous process, 1 for the tip of each transverse process, 1 for each epiphyseal plate
What is the classification of the joint forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?
Cartilage synchondrosis/ amphiarthosis synchondrosis
What are the names of the synchondroses forming between secondary centers of ossification and the rest of the typical vertebra?
Tip of the transverse process synchondrosis
Tip of the spinous process synchondrosis
Epiphyseal ring synchondrosis
What is the range of appearance for secondary centers of ossification of a typical vertebra?
during puberty, typically ages 11-16 years old