Flashcards in Biochemistry of Alcohol Deck (25)
What are the biomarkers of chronic alcohol abuse?
-Gamma GT: upregulated by ethanol
-Triacylglyceride: increased synthesis in liver
-raised MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
What bloods must be done on patients with suspected alcohol-induced coma?
-glucose: are they hyperglycaemic?
What is the main contributing electrolyte to serum osmolality? What is the reference interval?
What is the osmolal gap?
The difference between the measured osmolality and the calculated osmolality
How is osmolality calculated?
2([Na] + [K]) + [urea] + [glucose]
What is a possible contributor to the osmolal gap in comatose patient?
List the LFTs:
PTR (prothrombin ratio)
ALT is a marker of liver function
Marker of hepatocyte damage
Sources of ALP?
Where is Gamma GT found?
Liver, kidneys, pancreas, prostate
What is the half life of albumin?
During systemic inflammatory response levels of albumin rise
albumin levels fall
Prothrombin ratio is a good marker of current liver synthetic function (T/F)
What is the prothrombin half-life (T/F)
What biochemical tests are run on a patient presenting with vomiting?
What is the differential diagnosis of vomiting in an alcoholic patient?
1. acute gastritis
2. oeseophageal stricture
3. pyloric stenosis
Vomiting causes metabolic acidosis (T/F).
-loss of H+ drives the release of bicarbonate into blood
Why is metabolic alkalosis aggravated in vomiting patients with pyloric stenosis?
Normally, loss of acid from stomach is 'compensated' by loss of alkali (bicarbonate) from duodenum.
In pyloric stenosis, mostly acidic stomach contents are lost
High bicarbonate and low H+ indicate...
If CO2 was high, this would indicate...
-that it's compensated metabolic alkalosis (via decreased breathing rate)
What biomarkers are relevant in a haematemesis patient?
Very high Urea is seen in haematemesis patients (T/F)
proteins from the blood are metabolised
What hormones are released in response to low blood volume?
Aldosterone - promotes Na and water retention
ADH - promotes water retention
In alcoholic patients, what can be a cause of low blood volume?
Hypoalbuminaemia - failure of synthesis by cirrhotic liver
Extremely low bicarbonate may be a sign of what?
Ingestion of methanol