Flashcards in effects of alcohol on the body Deck (31)
What are the common signs found on general examination in chronic alcohol abusers?
What condition common to alcoholic patients is palmar erythema associated with?
Dupuytren's contracture is caused by fibrosis of the _____ _____ of the fingers
Caput medusae arise due to ____ _____
What is subdural haematoma?
bleeding in the subdural space of the brain common in alcohilics
Ataxia (an abnormally shaky gait) and abnormal eye movements are characteristic of _______ ___________
Loss of memory, often coupled with attempts to mask it (confabulation), is known as _____ _______
What is the main site of infection in aspiration pneumonia?
right lower lobe
What effects does chronic alcohol abuse have on the heart? How is it brought on?
-alcohol is a negative inotrope - it reduces contractility. This is compensated by increase heart rate
How does alcohol ingestion affect fat metabolism in the liver?
-increased peripheral free fatty acid is delivered to the liver
-NAD is converted by alcohol to NADH, which stimulates lipid synthesis
-mitochondrial oxidation of free fatty acids is reduced by alcohol
-transport of fat out of hepatocytes is reduced (due to impaired intracellular tubulin)
What is the presentation of acute alcoholic steatohepatitis?
What is the histopathology of alcoholic steatohepatitis?
-acute inflammatory cell infiltration
-Mallory's hyaline (pink inclusion in cytoplasm)
What is Boerhaave syndrome?
Oesophageal rupture resulting from protracted vomiting
The tearing of the eosophageal muocsa is known as...
What is Barret's oesophagus?
change of the normal squamous epithelium to the columnar lined mucosa in response to repeat insult from gastric contents
Oesophageal varice formation is reversible if treated before rupture (T/F)
-treatment is symptomatic - e.g. banding upon rupture
Fat necrosis, scarring and pseudocyst formation in the pancreas arises due to ____ _____
How do pseudocysts differ from cysts?
cysts are lined by epithelial cells
What is the pathophysiology of alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathy?
-burning pain and weakness are present
-due to direct damage to peripheral nerves and thiamine deficiency
Thiamine deficiency resulting in cytotoxic oedema in Mamillary bodies is...
Cerebral atropnhy resulting from Wernicke's syndrome is...
What are the characterisitcs of Korsakoff syndrome?
-Anterograde amniesia (no retention of new information)
-Retrograde amnesia (episodic memory)
How does chronic alcohol consumption result in Cardiomyopathy?
-Alcohol imparis ventricular function by impairing Ca homeostasis and mitochondrial function
-Chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis of myofibrils
-negative inotropic effect leads to compensatory increased contraction rate, causing dilated cardiomyopathy
How does alcohol cause arrhythmias?
-direct negative inotropic effect
-dilated caridomyopathy leads to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias
Alcohol related Steatohepatitis is irreversible (T/F)
reversible with cessation of drinking
What are the common complications associated with alcoholic hepatitis?
What is the cause of Hepatic Encephalopathy?
-portosystemic shunting through collaterals results in failure to clear toxins
-ammonia crosses the BBB
What is the treatment for Hepatic encephalopathy?
TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt)
Which metabolite of ethanol is carcinogenic?