Biology & Immunology Flashcards Preview

Oncology > Biology & Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology & Immunology Deck (59):
1

4 Bases of DNA

Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

2

Transcription

Process for DNA to RNA via RNA polymerase

3

Translation

Process from mRNA to strand of amino acids which forms a protein

4

Essential Amino Acids

Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Arginine*
Cysteine*
Glutamine*
Pyrrolysine*
Proline*
Selenocysteine*
Serine*
Tyrosine*

5

Which cells don't proliferate after birth?

Nerve cells
Muscle cells
Cardiac cells

6

Which cells are capable of self-renewal?

Stem cells

7

2 Types of Growth Factors

Stimulate cell division
Inhibit cell division

8

Cell Cycle Phases

G0
G1
S
G2
M

9

Define G0 Phase

A resting phase where the cell has left the cycle & has stopped dividing

10

Define G1 Phase

Cells increase in size

11

What is the G1 checkpoint?

Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis

12

Define S Phase

DNA replication occurs during this phase

13

Define G2 Phase

Gap between DNA synthesis & mitosis
Cell continues to grow

14

What is the G2 checkpoint?

Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready to enter the M phase & divide

15

Define M

Cell growth stops at this stage & cellular energy is focused on the orderly division into two daughter cells

16

What is the metaphase checkpoint?

Ensures that the cell is ready to complete cell division

17

2 Categories of Cancer Genes

Dominant: proto-oncoggenes
Recessive: tumor suppressor

18

Define Gain of Function Mutations

Altered or unregulated activity of a "photo-oncogene" leads to tumorigenesis

19

Define Loss of Function Mutations

Loss of activity of tumor suppressors results in unregulated pathways and tumorigenesis

20

"Hallmarks of Cancer"

Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
Evading apoptosis
Limitless reproductive potential
Capacity to invade other tissues
Sustained angiogenesis
Tissue invasion & metastases
Genomic instability

21

How do cancer cells invade our bodies?

Resisting apoptosis
CSCs forming resistant phenotypes
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions
Interactions with microenvironment
Invadopodia & aquaporins
Genetic alterations

22

Invadopodia

Actin rich membrane protrusion formed by invasive cancer cells (protrude through basement membranes)

23

Cancer Stages

Stage 0: mucosa level
Stage 1: through the submucosa
Stage 2: through the muscle layers
Stage 3: through the serosa
Stage 4: through serosa and spread to other organs

24

# of Mutations with Gain of Function

Single mutation event

25

# of Mutations with Loss of Function

2 mutation events

26

How do proto-oncogenes normally function?

Associated with cell growth, cell division, & cell differention

27

What can proto-oncogenes be?

Cell surface receptors
Adapter molecules
Enzymes: kinases/phosphatases

28

Type of Cells in Carcinomas

Epithelial cells

29

Types of Cells in Sarcomas

Connective tissue cells

30

Types of Cells in Lymphomas & Leukemias

Blood

31

Types of Cells in Germ Cell Tumors

Testicle & ovary

32

Types of Cells in Blastomas

Immature cells
Embryonic tissue

33

Methods of Identification of Cancer Critical Genes

Assay for oncogenic effects
Study of rare syndromes-tumor suppressors
Candidate genes
Genomics

34

How does Metastasis Occur?

Transformed cell
Invasion of basement membrane
Passage through extracellular matrix
Intravasation
Interaction with lymphoid cells
Tumor embolus
Adhesion to basement membrane
Extravasation
Metastatic deposit
Angiogenesis
Growth

35

How does cancer spread throughout the body?

Blood stream
Lymphatic fluid system
Seed into peritoneal, pericardial, or pleural spaces

36

Most Common Site of Breast Metastasis

Bone

37

Most Common Site of Colorectal Metastasis

Liver

38

Most Common Site of Prostate Metastasis

Bone

39

Why are some cancers more aggressive than others?

Biology: ploidy
Aneuploidy

40

Grading of Tumors

1: Well differentiated
2: Moderately differentiated
3: Poorly differentiated
4: Undifferentiated anaplastic

41

Characteristics & Growth Rate of Well Differentiated Tumors

Characteristics: looks like tissue of origin
Growth: slow, close to normal cell divisions

42

Characteristics & Growth Rate of Moderately Differentiated Tumors

Characteristics: many features like tissue of origin; less organized
Growth: faster; occasional mitosis

43

Characteristics & Growth Rate of Well Differentiated Tumors

Characteristics: few features of tissue of origin; little organization
Growth: more mitosis

44

Characteristics & Growth Rate of Undifferentiated Anaplastic Tumors

Characteristics: no features to help distinguish origin
Growth: Mitoses throughout tissue

45

Old Cancer Model

Tumor cells can form new tumors & are tumorigenic
Unregulated growth due to expression of genes that promote cell proliferation, silencing of growth inhibitory genes, & blunting of cell death
Cancer is proliferative disease

46

New Cancer Model

Tumors arise from cancer stem cells
Unregulated growth due to a disruption in regulatory mechanisms in stem cell renewal
Cancer is a stem cell disorder
Stem cells persist in tumors which causes relapses & metastasis

47

What do traditional cancer therapies treat?

Kill rapidly dividing tumor cells but spare the stem cells that give rise to a new tumor

48

What should halt a tumor's growth & lead to it's disappearance?

Killing cancer stem cells

49

What are cancer stem cells?

Cells that have properties of normal stem cells such as:
1) ability to self-renew
2) ability to differentiate into multiple cel types
3) form distinct population in tumors that likely causes disease relapse & metastasis

50

What cancers are more common with hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome?

Breast
Ovarian
Male breast
Prostate
Pancreatic

51

What cancers are more common with Lynch (HNPCC) syndrome?

Colon
Gastric
Endometrial
Ovarian
Small bowel
Pancreas
Brain
Ureters
Kidney

52

What cancers are more common with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome?

Colon
Stomach
Thyroid
Brain
Liver
Adrenal gland

53

Less Common Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Cowden Syndrome
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosa syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome

54

Common Cancers with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

Breast
Bone
LEukemia
Brain
Soft tissue sarcomas

55

Common Cancers with Cowden Syndrome

Breast
Uterine
Thyroid
Ovarian
Colon

56

Common Cancers with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

Colon
Small bowel
Breast
Ovarian
Pancreatic

57

Common Cancers with Xeroderma Pigmentosa Syndrome

Basal cell
Squamous cell
Melanoma

58

Common Cancers with Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

Brain
Retina
Kidney
Pancreas
Adrenal gland

59

Common Cancers with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-1 Syndrome

Pancreas
Pituitary
Parathyroid
Thyroid