Flashcards in Clinical Manifestations Deck (63)
Cancer associated with blood in the stool
Cancer associated with painless hematuria
How can cancer effect the normal tissue?
Bowel obstruction (abdominal tumor)
Development of effusions
What cancers primarily lead to a pleural effusion?
What cancers primarily lead to peritoneal effusions?
What is anorexia due to in cancer?
Decreased caloric intake due to decreased desire of food
Reasons for Anorexia in Cancer
Physical obstruction of GI tract
Debility or SE of treatment
Where is weight loss typically from in anorexia?
Liver Size in Anorexia
Involuntary loss of at least 5% body mass
Secondary to hyper metabolic state & altered nutrient metabolism
Why cachexia in cancer?
Tumor consume large amounts of glucose & increase lactate formation
Abnormalities in fat & protein metabolism
Liver Size in Cachexia
Cancer Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome
Common in solid tumors
Decreased appetite & increase metabolism
More common in young and old
What does cachexia lead to with the weight loss?
Shorter median survival
Do no respond well to chemotherapy
More problems with toxicity
Characterization of Cancer Fatigue
Lack of energy
Not relieved by sleep
Inability of peripheral neuromuscular apparatus to perform a task in response to stimulus
Difficulty in initiating or maintaining voluntary activities
Secondary to dysregulation of serotonin & pro-inflammatory cytokines
Why poor sleep quality in cancer patients?
Trouble falling asleep
Secondary to pain or SE of treatment (N/V)
Anemia in Cancer
Impaired RBC production
How do malignancies decrease RBC production?
Bone marrow failure
Blunted EPO response
Inflammatory cytokines produce by tumors decrease EPO production
Common Malignancies that Present with a Fever
Define Paraneoplastic Syndromes
Collections of symptoms that result from substances produced by the tumor & occur remotely from eh tumor itself
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Cause
Abnormal increases in hormones secondary to the effects of the cancer cells
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Common in What Cancers
Mechanisms of Paraneoplastic Syndromes
Immune cross-reactivity between malignant & normal tissues
Tumor secretes hormones, peptides, cytokines
What systems can paraneoplastic syndromes affect?
Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes
Increased free water reabsorption
Failure of the negative feed back system that regulates the release of ADH
What does SIADH cause?