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Flashcards in Clinical Manifestations Deck (63)
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1

Cancer associated with blood in the stool

Colorectal CA

2

Cancer associated with painless hematuria

Bladder CA

3

How can cancer effect the normal tissue?

Bowel obstruction (abdominal tumor)
Development of effusions

4

What cancers primarily lead to a pleural effusion?

Lung CA
Lymphoma
Breast CA

5

What cancers primarily lead to peritoneal effusions?

Ovarian
Colorectal
Stomach
Pancreatic

6

What is anorexia due to in cancer?

Decreased caloric intake due to decreased desire of food

7

Reasons for Anorexia in Cancer

Physical obstruction of GI tract
Pain
Depression
Constipation
Malabsorption
Debility or SE of treatment

8

Where is weight loss typically from in anorexia?

Fat stores
Then muscle

9

Liver Size in Anorexia

Decreased

10

Define Cachexia

Involuntary loss of at least 5% body mass
Secondary to hyper metabolic state & altered nutrient metabolism

11

Why cachexia in cancer?

Tumor consume large amounts of glucose & increase lactate formation
Abnormalities in fat & protein metabolism

12

Liver Size in Cachexia

Increased- hepatomegaly

13

Cancer Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome

Common in solid tumors
Decreased appetite & increase metabolism
More common in young and old

14

What does cachexia lead to with the weight loss?

Shorter median survival
Do no respond well to chemotherapy
More problems with toxicity

15

Characterization of Cancer Fatigue

Tiredness
Weakness
Lack of energy
Not relieved by sleep

16

Peripheral Fatigue

Inability of peripheral neuromuscular apparatus to perform a task in response to stimulus
Anaerobic metabolism

17

Central Fatigue

Difficulty in initiating or maintaining voluntary activities
Secondary to dysregulation of serotonin & pro-inflammatory cytokines

18

Why poor sleep quality in cancer patients?

Trouble falling asleep
Staying asleep
Nighttime awakenings
Restless sleep
Secondary to pain or SE of treatment (N/V)

19

Anemia in Cancer

Blood loss
Hemolysis
Impaired RBC production
Treatment effects

20

How do malignancies decrease RBC production?

Nutritional deficiencies
Bone marrow failure
Blunted EPO response
Inflammatory cytokines produce by tumors decrease EPO production

21

Common Malignancies that Present with a Fever

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Leukemia
Renal cell
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Atrial myxomas

22

Define Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Collections of symptoms that result from substances produced by the tumor & occur remotely from eh tumor itself

23

Paraneoplastic Syndromes Cause

Abnormal increases in hormones secondary to the effects of the cancer cells

24

Paraneoplastic Syndromes Common in What Cancers

Lung
Breast
Hematologic

25

Mechanisms of Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Immune cross-reactivity between malignant & normal tissues
Tumor secretes hormones, peptides, cytokines

26

What systems can paraneoplastic syndromes affect?

Endocrine
Neurologic
Hematologic
Dermatologic
Rheumatologic

27

Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes

SIADH
Hypercalcmia
Cushing syndrome
Hypoglycemia

28

SIADH

Increased free water reabsorption
Failure of the negative feed back system that regulates the release of ADH

29

What does SIADH cause?

Dilutional hyponatremia

30

Associated Cancers with SIADH

Small cell lung CA
Mesothelioma
Bladder
Urethral
Endometrial
Prostate
Oropharyngeal
Thymoma
Lymphoma
Ewing sarcoma
Brain
GI
Breast
Adrenal